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This fifteenth edition also includes the following new topics and features:
• Employability skills—Chapter 1 introduces five critical competencies that employers look
for in job applicants and maps these skills onto the coverage of this text.
• Expanded coverage of major trends—Business ethics, diversity, and globalization—topics
that have emerged as vital issues in OB—have been further integrated into chapter discussions
and examples.
• Artificial intelligence—AI applications such as machine learning continue to sweep through
organizations and revolutionize the field of OB. This edition incorporates new coverage of AI
research throughout the text, including 40 applications of AI and machine learning.
• OB in times of crisis—New sections on responses to crises and extreme situations, such
as the COVID-19 pandemic, have been added to select chapters.
Available separately for purchase is MyLab Management for Essentials of Organizational Behavior,
the teaching and learning platform that empowers instructors to personalize learning for every
student. When combined with Pearson’s trusted educational content, this optional suite helps
deliver the desired learning outcomes.
• Latest research and updated examples—Nearly 1,000 new examples and insights from
research studies touch upon every aspect of the discipline.
Essentials of Organizational Behavior
Every business function, from finance and accounting to management and marketing, faces
challenges that hinge on the behavior of people in organizations. Essentials of Organizational
Behavior is a concise, clear, and balanced overview of the ways this discipline responds to the
critical issues confronting managers and employees in a diverse, connected, and globalized world.
Robbins and Judge translate the most current theory and research into actionable practices,
offering key insights that readers can apply to their own working experiences.
This is a special edition of an established title widely used by
colleges and universities throughout the world. Pearson published
this exclusive edition for the benefit of students outside the
United States and Canada. If you purchased this book within
the United States or Canada, you should be aware that it has
been imported without the approval of the Publisher or Author.
Essentials of
Organizational Behavior
Stephen P. Robbins • Timothy A. Judge
CVR_ROBB6664_15_GE_CVR_Vivar.indd 1
30/03/21 6:25 PM
Fifteenth Edition
Global Edition
Essentials of
Organizational Behavior
Stephen P. Robbins
San Diego State University
Timothy A. Judge
The Ohio State University
Harlow, England • London • New York • Boston • San Francisco • Toronto • Sydney • Dubai • Singapore • Hong Kong
Tokyo • Seoul • Taipei • New Delhi • Cape Town • São Paulo • Mexico City • Madrid • Amsterdam • Munich • Paris • Milan
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Pearson Education Limited
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and Associated Companies throughout the world
Visit us on the World Wide Web at:
© Pearson Education Limited 2022
The rights of Stephen P. Robbins and Timothy A. Judge to be identified as the authors of this work have been asserted by them in accordance
with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition, entitled Excellence in Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 15th edition, ISBN 978-013-546889-0, by Stephen P. Robbins and Timothy A. Judge, published by Pearson Education © 2022.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means,
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and/or other countries.
All trademarks used herein are the property of their respective owners. The use of any trademark in this text does not vest in the author or
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British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 10: 1-292-40666-6
ISBN 13: 978-1-292-40666-4
eBook ISBN 13: 978-1-292-40655-8
This eBook is a standalone product and may or may not include all assets that were part of the print version. It also does not provide access to
other Pearson digital products like MyLab and Mastering. The publisher reserves the right to remove any material in this eBook at any time.
Cover Photo: Mongkolp/shutterstock
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This book is dedicated to our friends and colleagues in
The Management & Organizational Behavior Teaching Society,
who, through their commitment to enhancing the quality of learning
through education and research, have significantly improved the ability
of students to understand and apply OB concepts.
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PART 1 Understanding Yourself and Others
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
What Is Organizational Behavior? 27
Diversity in Organizations 46
Attitudes and Job Satisfaction 63
Emotions and Moods 75
Personality and Values 91
PART 2 Making and Implementing Decisions
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Perception and Individual Decision Making
Motivation Concepts 129
Motivation: From Concepts to Applications
PART 3 Communicating in Groups and Teams
Chapter 9 Foundations of Group Behavior 163
Chapter 10 Understanding Work Teams 182
Chapter 11 Communication 199
PART 4 Negotiating Power and Politics
Chapter 12 Leadership 217
Chapter 13 Power and Politics 239
Chapter 14 Conflict and Negotiation
PART 5 Leading, Understanding, and Transforming
the Organization System 279
Chapter 15 Foundations of Organization Structure 279
Chapter 16 Organizational Culture 298
Chapter 17 Organizational Change and Stress Management
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About the Authors
PART 1 Understanding Yourself and Others
Chapter 1 What Is Organizational Behavior?
Management and Organizational Behavior 28
Effective Versus Successful Managerial Activities 29
Organizational Behavior (OB) Defined 29
Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study 30
Building on Big Data with Artificial Intelligence 31
Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field 33
Psychology 33
Social Psychology 34
Sociology 34
Anthropology 34
There Are Few Absolutes in OB 34
Challenges and Opportunities for OB 35
Globalization 36
Workforce Demographics 37
Workforce Diversity 37
Social Media 37
Employee Well-Being at Work 38
Positive Work Environment 38
Ethical Behavior 39
Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model 39
An Overview 40
Inputs 40
Processes 41
Outcomes 41
Employability Skills 43
Employability Skills That Apply Across Majors 43
Summary 45
Implications for Managers
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Chapter 2 Diversity in Organizations
Diversity 46
Demographic Characteristics 46
Levels of Diversity 47
Discrimination and Stereotyping 48
Stereotype Threat 48
Discrimination in the Workplace 49
Biographical Characteristics 49
Age 49
Gender 51
Race and Ethnicity 52
Disabilities 53
Hidden Disabilities 54
Other Differentiating Characteristics 54
Religion 54
Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity 55
Cultural Identity 56
Ability 57
Intellectual Abilities 57
Physical Abilities 59
Implementing Diversity Management Strategies 60
Attracting and Selecting Diverse Employees 60
Diversity in Groups 60
Diversity Programs 61
Summary 62
Implications for Managers
Chapter 3 Attitudes and Job Satisfaction
Attitudes 63
Attitudes and Behavior 64
Job Attitudes 65
Job Satisfaction and Job Involvement 66
Organizational Commitment 66
Perceived Organizational Support 67
Employee Engagement 67
Job Satisfaction 68
How Do I Measure Job Satisfaction? 68
How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs? 68
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What Causes Job Satisfaction? 70
Job Conditions 70
Personality 70
Pay 70
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) 70
Outcomes of Job Satisfaction 71
Job Performance 71
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) 71
Customer Satisfaction 71
Life Satisfaction 72
The Impact of Job Dissatisfaction 72
Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) 73
Managers Often “Don’t Get It” 74
Summary 74
Implications for Managers
Chapter 4 Emotions and Moods
What Are Emotions and Moods? 75
Positive and Negative Affect 76
The Basic Emotions 76
Moral Emotions 78
Experiencing Moods and Emotions 78
The Function of Emotions 78
Sources of Emotions and Moods 79
Personality 79
Time of Day 79
Day of the Week 80
Weather 80
Stress 80
Sleep 82
Exercise 82
Gender 82
Emotional Labor 82
Controlling Emotional Displays 83
Affective Events Theory 83
Emotional Intelligence 84
Emotion Regulation 85
Emotion Regulation Influences and Outcomes
Emotion Regulation Techniques 86
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OB Applications of Emotions and Moods
Selection 87
Decision Making 87
Creativity 88
Motivation 88
Leadership 88
Customer Service 89
Work–Life Satisfaction 89
Deviant Workplace Behaviors 89
Safety and Injury at Work 90
Summary 90
Implications for Managers
Chapter 5 Personality and Values
Linking Individuals to the Workplace 91
Person–Job Fit 91
Person–Organization Fit 92
Other Dimensions of Fit 93
Personality 93
What Is Personality? 93
Personality Frameworks 94
The Myers–Briggs Type Indicator 95
The Big Five Personality Model 95
How Do the Big Five Traits Predict Behavior at Work?
The Dark Triad 98
Other Personality Attributes Relevant to OB 100
Core Self-Evaluation (CSE) 100
Self-Monitoring 101
Proactive Personality 101
Personality and Situations 101
Situation Strength Theory 102
Trait Activation Theory 103
Values 104
Terminal versus Instrumental Values 105
Generational Values 105
Cultural Values 106
Hofstede’s Framework 106
The GLOBE Framework 107
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Summary 110
Implications for Managers 110
PART 2 Making and Implementing Decisions
Chapter 6 Perception and Individual Decision Making
What Is Perception? 111
Factors That Influence Perception 112
Person Perception: Making Judgments about Others 112
Attribution Theory 112
Common Shortcuts in Judging Others 114
The Link Between Perception and Individual Decision
Making 116
Decision Making in Organizations 116
The Rational Model, Bounded Rationality, and Intuition 116
Common Biases and Errors in Decision Making 117
Influences on Decision Making: Individual Differences
and Organizational Constraints 120
Individual Differences 120
Organizational Constraints 122
Ethics in Decision Making 123
Three Ethical Decision Criteria 123
Choosing Between Criteria 124
Behavioral Ethics 124
Lying 124
Creativity and Innovation in Organizations 125
Creative Behavior 125
Causes of Creative Behavior 126
Creative Outcomes (Innovation) 128
Summary 128
Implications for Managers 128
Chapter 7 Motivation Concepts
Motivation 129
Early Theories of Motivation 130
Hierarchy of Needs Theory 130
Two-Factor Theory 130
McClelland’s Theory of Needs 131
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Contemporary Theories of Motivation 132
Self-Determination Theory 133
Goal-Setting Theory 134
Other Contemporary Theories of Motivation 137
Self-Efficacy Theory 137
Reinforcement Theory 138
Expectancy Theory 139
Organizational Justice 140
Equity Theory 140
Distributive Justice 141
Procedural Justice 141
Interactional Justice 142
Justice Outcomes 143
Culture and Justice 143
Job Engagement 144
Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation 144
Summary 146
Implications for Managers 146
Chapter 8 Motivation: From Concepts to Applications
Motivating by Job Design: The Job Characteristics Model
(JCM) 147
Elements of the JCM 148
Efficacy of the JCM 148
Motivating Potential Score (MPS) 149
Job Redesign 149
Job Rotation and Job Enrichment 150
Relational Job Design 151
Alternative Work Arrangements 151
Flextime 151
Job Sharing 153
Telecommuting 154
Employee Involvement 155
Cultural EIP 155
Examples of Employee Involvement Programs 155
Using Extrinsic Rewards to Motivate Employees 156
What to Pay: Establishing a Pay Structure 156
How to Pay: Rewarding Individual Employees Through
Variable-Pay Programs 157
Using Benefits to Motivate Employees 160
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Using Intrinsic Rewards to Motivate Employees
Employee Recognition Programs 161
Summary 162
Implications for Managers 162
PART 3 Communicating in Groups and Teams
Chapter 9 Foundations of Group Behavior
Defining and Classifying Groups 163
Social Identity 164
Ingroups and Outgroups 164
Stages of Group Development 165
Group Property 1: Roles 166
Role Perception 167
Role Expectations 167
Role Conflict 167
Group Property 2: Norms 168
Norms and Emotions 168
Norms and Conformity 169
Norms and Behavior 169
Positive Norms and Group Outcomes 170
Negative Norms and Group Outcomes 170
Norms and Culture 172
Group Property 3: Status, and Group Property 4: Size
and Dynamics 172
Group Property 3: Status 172
Group Property 4: Size and Dynamics 174
Group Property 5: Cohesiveness, and Group Property 6:
Diversity 174
Group Property 5: Cohesiveness 175
Group Property 6: Diversity 175
Group Decision Making 177
Groups Versus the Individual 178
Groupthink and Groupshift 179
Group Decision-Making Techniques 179
Summary 181
Implications for Managers 181
Chapter 10 Understanding Work Teams
Differences Between Groups and Teams
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Types of Teams 184
Problem-Solving Teams 184
Self-Managed Work Teams 184
Cross-Functional Teams 185
Virtual Teams 185
Multiteam Systems 186
Creating Effective Teams 187
Team Context 188
Team Composition 190
Team Processes and States 193
Turning Individuals into Team Players 196
Selecting: Hiring Team Players 196
Training: Creating Team Players 196
Rewarding: Providing Incentives to Be a Good Team
Player 197
Beware! Teams Are Not Always the Answer 197
Summary 198
Implications for Managers 198
Chapter 11 Communication
Functions of Communication 200
The Communication Process 200
Direction of Communication 201
Downward Communication 202
Upward Communication 202
Lateral Communication 202
Formal Small-Group Networks 203
The Grapevine 203
Modes of Communication 204
Oral Communication 205
Written Communication 205
Nonverbal Communication 206
Choice of Communication Channel 206
Channel Richness 206
Choosing Communication Methods 207
Information Security 208
Persuasive Communication 208
Automatic and Controlled Processing 208
Choosing the Message 210
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Barriers to Effective Communication 210
Filtering 210
Selective Perception 210
Information Overload 210
Emotions 211
Language 211
Silence 211
Communication Apprehension 212
Lying 212
Communicating in Times of Crisis 212
Cultural Factors 213
Cultural Barriers 213
Cultural Context 214
A Cultural Guide 215
Summary 216
Implications for Managers 216
PART 4 Negotiating Power and Politics
Chapter 12 Leadership
Trait Theories of Leadership 217
Personality Traits and Leadership 218
Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Leadership 219
Behavioral Theories 219
Initiating Structure 219
Consideration 219
Cultural Differences 220
Contingency Theories 220
The Fiedler Model 221
Situational Leadership Theory 221
Path–Goal Theory 222
Leader-Participation Model 223
Contemporary Theories of Leadership 223
Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory 223
Charismatic, Transformational, and Transactional
Leadership Styles 225
Transactional and Transformational Leadership 227
Responsible Leadership 231
Authentic Leadership 231
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(Un)ethical Leadership 231
Servant Leadership 232
Positive Leadership 233
Trust 233
Mentoring 235
Leading in Times of Crisis 236
Challenges to Our Understanding of Leadership
Leadership as an Attribution 237
Neutralizers of and Substitutes for Leadership
Summary 238
Implications for Managers 238
Chapter 13 Power and Politics
Power and Leadership 239
Bases of Power 240
Formal Power 240
Personal Power 241
Which Bases of Power Are Most Effective? 241
Dependence: The Key to Power 242
The General Dependence Postulate 242
What Creates Dependence? 242
Social Network Analysis: A Tool for Assessing Resources
Influence Tactics 244
Using Influence Tactics 245
Cultural Preferences for Influence Tactics 246
Applying Influence Tactics 246
How Power Affects People 247
What We Can Do About Power 247
Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace
Politics: Power in Action 249
Political Behavior 249
The Reality of Politics 250
Causes and Consequences of Political Behavior 250
Factors Contributing to Political Behavior 250
How Do People Respond to Organizational Politics?
Impression Management 254
The Ethics of Behaving Politically 256
Mapping Your Political Career 256
Summary 256
Implications for Managers 258
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Chapter 14 Conflict and Negotiation
A Definition of Conflict 259
Types of Conflict 260
Loci of Conflict 262
The Conflict Process 263
Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility 263
Stage II: Cognition and Personalization 264
Stage III: Intentions 265
Stage IV: Behavior 266
Stage V: Outcomes 266
Negotiation 268
Bargaining Strategies 269
The Negotiation Process 271
Individual Differences in Negotiation Effectiveness 273
Negotiating in a Social Context 276
Reputation 276
Relationships 277
Third-Party Negotiations 277
Summary 278
Implications for Managers 278
PART 5 Leading, Understanding, and Transforming
the Organization System 279
Chapter 15 Foundations of Organization Structure
What Is Organizational Structure? 279
Work Specialization 280
Departmentalization 280
Chain of Command 282
Span of Control 283
Centralization and Decentralization 284
Formalization 285
Boundary Spanning 285
Common Organizational Frameworks and Structures
The Simple Structure 286
The Bureaucracy 286
The Matrix Structure 287
Alternate Design Options 288
The Virtual Structure 288
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The Team Structure 289
The Circular Structure 290
The Leaner Organization: Downsizing 290
Why Do Structures Differ? 291
Organizational Strategies 291
Organization Size 294
Technology 294
Environment 294
Institutions 295
Organizational Designs and Employee Behavior
Span of Control 296
Centralization 296
Predictability Versus Autonomy 296
National Culture 297
Summary 297
Implications for Managers 297
Chapter 16 Organizational Culture
What Is Organizational Culture? 298
A Definition of Organizational Culture 299
Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures? 301
Strong Versus Weak Cultures 301
How Employees Learn Culture 302
Stories 302
Rituals 302
Symbols 303
Language 303
Creating and Sustaining Culture 304
How a Culture Begins 304
Keeping a Culture Alive 305
What Do Cultures Do? 308
The Functions of Culture 308
Culture Creates Climate 308
The Ethical Dimension of Culture 310
Culture and Sustainability 310
Culture and Innovation 311
Culture as an Asset 311
Culture as a Liability 312
Influencing Organizational Culture 314
Ethical Cultures 314
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Positive Cultures 315
Spiritual Cultures 316
The Global Context 318
Summary 319
Implications for Managers 319
Chapter 17 Organizational Change and Stress
Management 321
Change 321
Forces for Change 322
Reactionary Versus Planned Change 323
Resistance to Change 323
Overcoming Resistance to Change 324
The Politics of Change 326
Approaches to Managing Organizational Change
Lewin’s Three-Step Model 326
Kotter’s Eight-Step Plan 327
Action Research 328
Organizational Development 329
Facilitating Change 331
Managing Paradox 331
Stimulating Innovation 331
Creating a Learning Organization 333
Organizational Change and Stress 334
Stress at Work 334
What Is Stress? 335
Potential Sources of Stress at Work 336
Individual Differences in Stress 338
Cultural Differences 339
Consequences of Stress at Work 340
Managing Stress 340
Individual Approaches 341
Organizational Approaches 342
Summary 343
Implications for Managers 344
Epilogue 345
Endnotes 346
Glossary 424
Index 432
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This brief text was created as an alternative to the 600- or 700-page comprehensive textbook in organizational behavior (OB). Essentials of Organizational Behavior attempts
to provide balanced coverage of all the key elements comprising the discipline of OB in
a style that readers will find both informative and interesting. We’re pleased to say that
this text has achieved a wide following in short courses and executive programs, as well
as in traditional courses as a companion volume to experiential, skill development, case,
and reading resources. It is currently used at hundreds of colleges and universities in
the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, Australia, and Asia. It has also been
translated into Spanish, Portuguese, Japanese, Chinese, Dutch, Polish, Turkish, Danish,
and Bahasa Indonesian.
Students and instructors alike have expressed a need for a text on organizational behavior
that is concise, clear, and focused on what matters: the Essentials. Since its first publication in 1984, we have tried diligently to keep this book in the range of 325 to 450 pages
to meet this need.
Essentials of Organizational Behavior provides a brief overview of the core concepts
and theories within the field of OB. Our current text users rave about this approach
because it gives them flexibility to include other kinds of learning experiences and
content in their OB courses. As a result, this text is currently used in a wide variety of
courses and programs—ranging from community colleges to graduate schools, and in
both in-person and online courses.
Part of the reason we have been able to keep this book short in length is that it does not
include review questions, cases, exercises, or other components. It continues to provide
the basic core of OB knowledge, allowing instructors the maximum flexibility in designing and shaping their courses.
In addition, Essentials of Organizational Behavior focuses on translating state-of-the
art theory and research on OB into actionable practices that can be directly applied by
students in the world of work. (See the Implications for Managers section at the end of
each chapter.) By focusing on why OB matters in the workplace, students can apply what
they learn to their own working experiences, regardless of their field of study. In the next
section, we describe another facet of the practicality of this book: employability skills.
As a new feature in this edition, we spotlight five specific skills that research studies
have identified as critical competencies that employers look for in job applicants. The
competencies have been grouped together to form a broad set of “employability skills.”
These skills include critical thinking, communication, collaboration, knowledge
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application/analysis, and social responsibility. We have included a new section
in Chapter 1 that introduces employability skills, along with a matrix that identifies
which employability skills are targeted by each part of the book. Explicit examples of
how OB is relevant for business functions (e.g., marketing, sales) and outcomes are
also highlighted in each subsequent chapter.
State-of-the-Art Research and Examples
In total, nearly 1,000 new examples, research studies, and other forms of content were
added to this edition. Content coverage was expanded to include updated research, discussion, and examples of current issues related to all aspects of organizational behavior.
Overall, 538 contemporary examples were added to this edition.
OB in Times of Crisis
Given the unprecedented effect of the global COVID-19 pandemic on organizational
behavior, new sections were added on OB topics in times of crisis. Four new “crisis”
sections were added to the chapters on Decision Making, Teams, Communication, and
Leadership. A discussion of COVID-19 and its effects on telecommuting was also included in the Motivation (Application) chapter.
Business Ethics
Events such as the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil spill, the Wells Fargo account fraud scandal, and the now infamous Enron scandal have cemented business ethics as an incredibly
important topic area relevant to the study of OB. In this new edition, we have broadly
increased our coverage of business ethics topics, including a new standalone section on
organizational justice in the Motivation Concepts chapter, as well as new content on
(un)ethical behavior (e.g., deviance) in the sections on organizations, behavioral ethics,
corporate social responsibility, counterproductive work behaviors, moral emotions, the
Dark Triad personality traits, (un)ethical leadership (e.g., abusive supervision), prejudice
and discrimination, as well as ethical cultures and climate.
Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning
Artificial intelligence (AI) and its applications, such as machine learning, have completely revolutionized the field of OB. Given the prevalence of AI applications in organizations and its status as a cutting-edge method in OB, we have included new examples
of AI research and application throughout the text. In total, 40 applications of artificial
intelligence and machine learning were incorporated across the chapters.
Increased Coverage on Diversity and Globalization
Diversity and globalization topics continue to be hot topics within the study of OB.
Increased integration of contemporary globalization and diversity issues were added into
topic discussions. Ninety-seven examples relevant to global issues, cross-cultural differences, and globalization were added as well as 129 examples of how OB affects diversity
in organizations.
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Chapter 1: What Is Organizational Behavior?
• New content: New Trends and Limitations in “Building on Big Data With Artificial Intelligence,” Employability Skills
• Newly revised sections: Learning Objectives, What Is Organizational Behavior?,
Management and Organizational Behavior, Complementing Intuition With Systematic Study, Implications for Managers
• New research incorporated in the following areas: Introduction, Complementing Intuition With Systematic Study, Building on Big Data With Artificial
Intelligence, Globalization, Workforce Diversity, Social Media, Productivity,
Employability Skills
Chapter 2: Diversity in Organizations
• New content: Stereotype Threat, Diversity in Groups, Diversity Programs, Gender
(the Glass Ceiling and Glass Cliff), Cultural Intelligence, Bias Against Mothers,
Work-Life Balance Issues Tied to Diversity
• Newly revised sections: Diversity, Discrimination and Stereotyping, Biographical Characteristics, Other Differentiating Characteristics, Implementing Diversity
Management Strategies, Summary, Implications for Managers
• New research incorporated in the following areas: Demographic Characteristics, Age, Gender, Race and Ethnicity, Hidden Disabilities, Religion, Sexual
Orientation and Gender Identity, Cultural Identity, Intellectual Abilities, Physical
Abilities, Diversity in Groups, Diversity Programs
Chapter 3: Attitudes and Job Satisfaction
• New content: Employee Engagement, updated Global Job Satisfaction Exhibits
• Newly revised sections: Attitudes, Attitudes and Behavior, Job Attitudes, Job
Satisfaction, What Causes Job Satisfaction?
• New research incorporated in the following areas: Attitudes, Attitudes and
Behavior, Job Attitudes, Employee Engagement, How Satisfied Are People in Their
Jobs?, Job Conditions, Turnover, The Impact of Job Dissatisfaction, Managers
Often “Don’t Get It”
Chapter 4: Emotions and Moods
• New content: Positive and Negative Affect, Moral Emotions, Emotional
• Newly revised sections: What Are Emotions and Moods?, Sources of Emotions
and Moods, Emotional Labor, Emotional Intelligence, Emotion Regulation
• New research incorporated in the following areas: The Basic Emotions, Experiencing Moods and Emotions, The Function of Emotions, Personality, Weather,
Sleep, Sex, Controlling Emotional Displays, Affective Events Theory, Emotional
Intelligence, Emotion Regulation, Emotion Regulation Techniques, Selection and
Leadership, OB Applications of Emotions and Moods
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Chapter 5: Personality and Values
• New content: Other Frameworks includes research on the HEXACO model,
Cultural Values, New Exhibit (5.5), Comparison of Hofstede’s Framework and the
GLOBE Framework
• Newly revised sections: Linking Individuals to the Workplace (moved to introductory section), Personality, Agreeableness at Work, Other Personality Attributes
Relevant to OB, Personality and Situations, Values, Cultural Values, Summary,
Implications for Managers
• New research incorporated in the following areas: What Is Personality?,
Person–Job Fit, Person–Organization Fit, The Myers–Briggs Type Indicator, How
Do the Big Five Traits Predict Behavior at Work?, The Dark Triad, Other Frameworks, Core Self-Evaluation, Self-Monitoring, Proactive Personality, Personality
and Situations, Situation Strength Theory, Trait Activation Theory, Values, Terminal Versus Instrumental Values, Generational Values, Hofstede’s Framework
Chapter 6: Perception and Individual Decision Making
• New content: The Threat of Technological Unemployment, Decision Making in
Times of Crisis, Deonance Theory
• Newly revised sections: What Is Perception?, Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others, Common Shortcuts in Judging Others, Decision Making
in Organizations, Influences on Decision Making, Choosing Between Criteria,
Causes of Creative Behavior, Summary, Implications for Managers
• New research incorporated in the following areas: Factors That Influence
Perception, Attribution Theory, Stereotyping, The Link Between Perception and
Individual Decision Making, Intuition, Overconfidence Bias, Confirmation Bias,
Availability Bias, Risk Aversion, Hindsight Bias, Personality, Gender, Reward
Systems, Behavioral Ethics, Lying, Causes of Creative Behavior
Chapter 7: Motivation Concepts
• New content: Basic Psychological Needs in Self-Determination Theory, Expectancy Theory, Organizational Justice
• Newly revised sections: Learning Objectives, Motivation, Early Theories of Motivation, Contemporary Theories of Motivation, Other Contemporary Theories of
Motivation, Job Engagement, Summary, Implications for Managers
• New research incorporated in the following areas: Motivation; Two-Factor
Theory; McClelland’s Theory of Needs; Cognitive Evaluation Theory; SelfConcordance; Basic Psychological Needs; Goal Commitment, Task Characteristics, and National Culture; Goal Setting and Ethics; Individual and Promotion
Foci; Equity Theory; Distributive Justice; Interpersonal Justice; Justice Outcomes;
Job Engagement; Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation
Chapter 8: Motivation: From Concepts to Applications
• New content: Job Enrichment
• Newly revised sections: Learning Objectives, Motivating by Job Design, Job
Redesign, Alternative Work Arrangements, Telecommuting, Employee Involve-
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ment, Using Extrinsic Rewards to Motivate Employees, Using Intrinsic Rewards
to Motivate Employees
• New research incorporated in the following areas: Motivating by Job Design,
Efficacy of the JCM, Job Redesign, Job Rotation, Relational Job Design, Telecommuting, Employee Involvement and Participation, Participative Management,
Using Extrinsic Rewards to Motivate Employees, What to Pay: Establishing a Pay
Structure, How to Pay: Rewarding Individual Employees Through Variable-Pay
Programs, Piece-Rate Pay, Merit-Based Pay, Employee Stock Ownership Plan,
Employee Recognition Programs
Chapter 9: Foundations of Group Behavior
• New content: Groupshift, Research on Hidden Profiles and Information Sharing
• Newly revised sections: Defining and Classifying Groups, Stages of Group Development, Group Roles, Group Norms, Group Size and Dynamics, Group Cohesiveness, Group Diversity
• New research incorporated in the following areas: Social Identity, Ingroups
and Outgroups, Role Perception, Role Expectations, Role Conflict, Norms and
Emotions, Norms and Conformity, Positive Norms and Group Outcomes, Negative Norms and Group Outcomes, Norms and Culture, Status and Group Interaction, Status Inequity, Status and Stigmatization, Group Size and Dynamics, Types
of Group Diversity, Challenges of Group Diversity, Strengths and Weaknesses of
Group Decision Making, Effectiveness and Efficiency, Groupthink
Chapter 10: Understanding Work Teams
• New content: Crises and Extreme Contexts, Team Trust, Teaming
• Newly revised sections: Learning Objectives, Introduction, Differences Between
Groups and Teams, Updated Exhibit 10-3, Team Context, Team Processes and
States (Motivation and Mental Models), Creating Effective Teams, Turning Individuals Into Team Players
• New research incorporated in the following areas: Self-Managed Work Teams,
Virtual Teams, Multiteam Systems, Creating Effective Teams, Team Context
(including resources, leadership, structure, culture, climate, performance evaluation, and reward systems), Team Composition (member abilities, personality, and
team size), Team Processes and States (including a common plan, motivation, team
identity, team cohesion, and mental models), Turning Individuals Into Team Players
Chapter 11: Communication
• New content: Communicating in Times of Crisis
• Newly revised sections: Introduction, Direction of Communication, Functions of
Communication, Modes of Communication, Persuasive Communication, Barriers
to Effective Communication, Cultural Factors, Summary
• New research incorporated in the following areas: The Communication
Process, Feedback, Downward and Upward Communication, Lateral Communication, The Grapevine, Written and Nonverbal Communication, Choosing Communication Methods, Information Security, Persuasive Communication (Automatic
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and Controlled Processing, Importance/Interest Level, Message Characteristics),
Barriers to Effective Communication (such as Emotions, Language, and Silence),
Cultural Barriers
Chapter 12: Leadership
• New content: Leading in Times of Crisis, Gender and Leadership
• Newly revised sections: Trait Theories of Leadership, Contingency Theories,
Contemporary Theories of Leadership, Trust, Substitutes for and Neutralizers of
• New research incorporated in the following areas: Personality Traits and
Leadership (such as the Big Five Traits and Dark Triad Traits); Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Leadership; Leader Consideration Behaviors,;Cultural Differences; Path–Goal Theory; Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory; Charismatic,
Transformational, and Transactional Leadership Styles; Charismatic Leadership’s
Situational Contingencies; Transactional and Transformational Leadership; Full
Range of Leadership Model; (Un)ethical Leadership; Servant Leadership; Trust
(including Trust Propensity, The Role of Time, and Regaining Trust); Mentoring;
Leadership as an Attribution
Chapter 13: Power and Politics
• New content: How Power Affects People and What We Can Do About It, Sexual
Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace
• Newly revised sections: Power and Leadership, Which Bases of Power Are Most
Effective?, Social Network Analysis: A Tool for Assessing Resources, Influence
Tactics, updated Exhibit 13-2, How Power Affects People, Implications for Managers
• New research incorporated in the following areas: Power and Leadership,
Which Bases of Power Are Most Effective?, Nonsubstitutability, Social Network
Analysis: A Tool for Assessing Resources, Using and Applying Influence Tactics,
How Power Affects People, How Power Affects People and What We Can Do
About It, Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace, The Reality of
Politics, Organizational Factors, How Do People Respond to Organizational Politics?, Impression Management
Chapter 14: Conflict and Negotiation
• New content: Complicating Conflict
• Newly revised sections: A Definition of Conflict, Cognition and Personalization,
Managing Conflict, Negotiation, Individual Differences in Negotiation Effectiveness
• New research incorporated in the following areas: Types of Conflict (including Relationship, Task, Process, and Complicating Conflict); Potential Opposition or Incompatibility (such as Structure and Personal Variables); Cognition and
Personalization; Intentions (Competing and Collaborating); Managing Conflict;
Functional Outcomes; Distributive and Integrative Bargaining; Preparation and
Planning (for a negotiation); Clarification and Justification (during a negotiation);
Personality, Moods/Emotions, Culture and Race, and Gender in Negotiations;
Third-Party Negotiations
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Chapter 15: Foundations of Organization Structure
• Newly revised sections: What Is Organizational Structure?, Common Organizational Frameworks and Structures, Alternate Design Options, The Leaner Organization: Downsizing, Why Do Structures Differ?, Implications for Managers
• New research incorporated in the following areas: Organizational Structure,
Departmentalization, Chain of Command, Centralization and Decentralization,
Formalization, The Bureaucracy, The Virtual Structure, The Team Structure, The
Leaner Organization: Downsizing, Mechanistic and Organic Models, Volatility
Chapter 16: Organizational Culture
• New content: A Definition of Organizational Culture, New Exhibit (16-2) on
the effect of culture on organizational outcomes, updated Exhibit 16-6, Culture
Creates Climate
• Newly revised sections: Learning Objectives, What Is Organizational Culture?,
Reorganized chapter so that “How Employees Learn Culture” and “Creating and
Sustaining Culture” are covered earlier, What Do Cultures Do?, Summary, Implication for Managers
• New research incorporated in the following areas: Do Organizations Have
Uniform Cultures?, Strong Versus Weak Cultures, Rituals, Language, Keeping
a Culture Alive (Selection and Top Management’s Role), Encounter Stage (of
Socialization), Hangover Phases in Socialization, The Functions of Culture,
Culture Creates Climate, The Ethical Dimension of Culture, Culture and Sustainability, Culture and Innovation, Culture as an Asset, Barriers to (cultural)
Diversity, Toxicity and Dysfunctions, Barriers to Acquisitions and Mergers,
Developing an Ethical Culture, Criticism of Spirituality
Chapter 17: Organizational Change and Stress Management
• New content: Criticisms of Lewin’s Three-Step Model
• Newly revised sections: Learning Objectives, Change, Creating a Culture for
Change, Stress at Work, Summary
• New research incorporated in the following areas: Forces for Change, Resistance to Change, Overcoming Resistance to Change (including Communication,
Participation, Building Support, and Developing Positive Relationships), Action
Research, Process Consultation, Managing Paradox, Sources of Innovation, Context and Innovation, Idea Champions and Innovation, Organizational Change and
Stress, What Is Stress?, Stressors, Potential Sources of Stress at Work (including Environmental, Organizational, and Personal Factors), Stressors Are Additive,
Perception (of Stress), Workaholism, Physiological and Behavioral Symptoms (of
Stress), Individual Approaches (to Managing Stress) (including Time-Management
Techniques, Relaxation Techniques, and Social Support Networks), Goal-Setting
(to Reduce Stress), Employee Sabbaticals, Wellness Programs
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We owe a debt of gratitude to all those at Pearson who have supported this text over
the past 25 years and who have worked so hard on the development of this latest edition. We want to thank Senior Content Analyst Beth Kaufman, Content Strategy Manager Lynn Huddon, Product Manager Olutosin Aje-Adegbite, Product Marketer Nayke
Heine, Managing Producer Melissa Feimer, and Content Producer Yasmita Hota. On
the production side, we want to thank Gina Linko, project manager at Integra Software
Services. The authors are grateful to David Glerum for his assistance in manuscript
editing and preparation. Finally, we would like to thank the marketing team for promoting
the book and the sales staff who have been selling this book over its many editions. We
appreciate the attention you have given this book.
We would also like to thank the many reviewers who helped make this new edition as
strong and solid as possible:
Eli Awtrey, University of Cincinnati
Gerard Beenen, California State University, Fullerton
Jon P. Briscoe, Northern Illinois University
Jeff W. Bruns, Piedmont College
Maryalice Citera, State University of New York at
New Paltz
Jeremy Couch, Palm Beach Atlantic University
R Wayne Downing, Northwood University
Rita Fields, University of Michigan–Flint
Kurt H. Gering, Marquette University
Elissa D. Giffords, Long Island University
Jerry W. Gladwell, Marshall University
Matthew D. Griffith, University of Texas at El Paso
Otha C. Hawkins, Alamance Community College
Larry Hodges, Fresno Pacific University
David S. Jalajas, Long Island University
Ralph Katerberg, University of Cincinnati
Amy Kyhos, Loyola University Chicago
Jamie Leddin, Vanderbilt University
Ronald Lesniak, Santa Clara University
Jennifer Moss Breen, Creighton University
Jennifer Murnane-Rainey, Creighton University
Michael Pierce, Fresno Pacific University
Rudy Roberts, Fresno Pacific University
Diane Roman Treuthart, Loyola University Chicago
Pamela K. Sigafoose, Palm Beach Atlantic University
Darren C. Treadway, Daemen College
Jim Westerman, Appalachian State University
Pearson would like to thank Ismail Hussein, Lebanese American University; Swapna
Koshy, University of Wollongong; John Opute, London South Bank University; ­Louise
Stansfield, Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences; and Jon and Diane
Sutherland for their contribution to the Global Edition. We would also like to thank
Charbel Aoun, Lebanese American University; Irene Ong Pooi Fong, Taylor’s University; Khaled Haque, Management Specialist; Neelofer Mashood, Middlesex University
Dubai; Stephanie Pougnet, University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland; and
­Sununta Siengthai, Asian Institute of Technology for reviewing the Global Edition content and providing feedback to improve it.
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Stephen P. Robbins
Ph.D., University of Arizona
Stephen P. Robbins previously worked for the Shell Oil Company and Reynolds Metals
Company and has taught at the University of Nebraska at Omaha, Concordia University
in Montreal, the University of Baltimore, Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville,
and San Diego State University. He is currently professor emeritus in management at
San Diego State. A full bio is available at Dr. Robbins’s research
interests have focused on conflict, power, and politics in organizations; behavioral decision making; and the development of effective interpersonal skills. His articles on these
and other topics have appeared in such journals as Business Horizons, the California
Management Review, Business and Economic Perspectives, International Management,
Management Review, Canadian Personnel and Industrial Relations, and The Journal
of Management Education. Dr. Robbins is the world’s best-selling textbook author in
the areas of management and organizational behavior. His books have sold more than
12 million copies and have been translated into 20 languages. His books are currently
used at more than 1,500 U.S. colleges and universities, as well as hundreds of schools
throughout Canada, Latin America, Australia, New Zealand, Asia, Europe, and the Arab
World. Dr. Robbins also participates in masters’ track competition. Since turning 50 in
1993, he’s won 23 national sprint championships and 14 world sprint titles. He was inducted into the U.S. Masters Track & Field Hall of Fame in 2005.
Timothy A. Judge
Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Timothy A. Judge is the Joseph A. Alutto Chair in Leadership Effectiveness, and Executive
Director of the Fisher Leadership Initiative, Fisher College of Business, The Ohio State University. In the past, Dr. Judge has been a Fellow of the Cambridge Judge Business School,
University of Cambridge, and Visiting Professor, Division of Psychology & Language Sciences, University College London. He has held academic positions at the University of Notre
Dame, University of Florida, University of Iowa, Cornell University, and Charles University
in the Czech Republic. Dr. Judge’s primary research interests are in (1) personality, moods,
and emotions; (2) job attitudes; (3) leadership; and (4) careers. Dr. Judge has published more
than 155 articles in these and other major topics in refereed journals. He is a fellow of several
professional societies, including the American Psychological Association, the Academy of
Management, and the International Association of Applied Psychology. Among the many
professional acknowledgments of his work, Dr. Judge has received the Heneman Career
Achievement Award, the Mahoney Doctoral Mentoring Award, and the Scholarly Achievement Award, all from the Human Resources Division of the Academy of Management.
In addition, a 2017 study identified him as the most cited out of more than 8,000 scholars
in applied psychology. Dr. Judge is a co-author of Organizational Behavior with Stephen
P. Robbins and Staffing Organizations with John Kammeyer-Mueller. Judge’s primary nonwork passion revolves around rock climbing and mountaineering. He has climbed the three
highest peaks in the United Kingdom and nearly half of the highest peaks in the lower fortyeight states. He and his wife Jill are the parents of three children.
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PART 1 Understanding Yourself and Others
What Is Organizational Behavior?
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
1.1 Define organizational behavior (referred to as OB throughout the text).
1.2 Show the value of systematic study to OB.
1.3 Identify the major behavioral science disciplines that contribute to OB.
1.4 Demonstrate why few absolutes apply to OB.
1.5 Identify managers’ challenges and opportunities in applying OB concepts.
1.6 Compare the three levels of analysis in this text’s OB model.
1.7 Describe the key employability skills gained from studying OB that are applicable
to other majors or future careers.
ight now, you might be wondering, “What is organizational behavior and why
does it matter to me?” We will define organizational behavior (OB) very shortly,
but first let us begin with the end in mind—why OB matters, and what the study of
OB offers you.
Historically, business school coursework on human behavior in organizations has
received relatively little attention. This might be surprising to you, because you might
be thinking, but “the people make the place”;1 organizations are only as effective as the
people who comprise them. Should we not try to understand people in the workplace, as
well as how we make decisions, communicate, and interact with one another? Over the
last several decades, business schools and organizations have realized the significant role
interpersonal skills play in determining a manager’s effectiveness. Understanding OB is
important to you now, more than ever. We are in the midst of an OB revolution, of sorts,
that is gaining traction year by year. As noted in the 2016 Deloitte Global Business Trends
report, organizations have figured out that they need to understand “what makes people
join, perform well in, and stay with an organization; who will likely be successful; who
will make the best leaders; and what is required to deliver the highest-quality customer
service and innovation.”2
A knowledge of OB and interpersonal skills is critical for your success and
advancement in the modern workplace. According to Jeff Weiner, chief executive officer
(CEO) of LinkedIn, “communications is the No. 1 skills gap across. . . major cities in the
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Part 1 • Understanding Yourself and Others
This Spanish
broadband and
provider is one
of the best places
to work because
of their “people”
focus. Telefónica’s
concerted efforts
to keep its
employees happy
and productive
includes putting in
place a confidential
help channel,
which allows
employees to clarify
queries regarding
operational matters
and raise instances
of noncompliance.
United States.”3 It is also relevant to nearly every job: One study by Monster (a global
employment company) mined nearly one million market-wide job postings to determine
the most frequently desired skills in applicants.4 Communication skills was at the top of
the list, followed by other OB-relevant skills, including problem-solving and influence
skills. Furthermore, these skills are also necessary for your career advancement. A survey of over 2,100 chief financial officers across twenty industries indicated that a lack of
interpersonal skills is the top reason why some employees fail to advance.5 Ultimately,
OB can equip you with tools that are critical to success and advancement in the workplace. In this text, we pay special attention to how the knowledge and practice of OB can
help you (1) think analytically and critically, (2) make better decisions, (3) communicate
and collaborate more effectively with others, and (4) act with a sense of social responsibility in the workplace. Research has demonstrated that these types of “employability
skills” are highly valued and desired by employers, and a lack of these skills can lead to
problems in the workplace.6
From the organizational standpoint, incorporating OB principles can help transform a workplace from good to great, with a positive impact on the bottom line. Companies known as good places to work—such as Lululemon, LinkedIn, Zoom Video,
Southwest Airlines, Bain & Company, Google, the Boston Consulting Group, and
Facebook7—have been found to generate superior financial performance as a result of
their attention to OB.8 Second, developing managers’ interpersonal skills helps organizations attract and keep high-performing employees, which is important because
outstanding employees are always in short supply and costly to replace. Third, the
quality of workplace relationships is strongly linked with employee job satisfaction,
stress, and turnover. One study of hundreds of workplaces and more than 200,000
respondents showed that positive social relationships among coworkers and supervisors were strongly related to overall job satisfaction, lower stress at work, and lower
intentions to quit.9 Positive work relationships help employees to flourish, leading
to improvements in job and life satisfaction, positive emotions at work, and perceptions that one’s work has meaning.10 Fourth, an emphasis on OB in organizations
can foster awareness of social responsibility. Universities have started to incorporate
social entrepreneurship education into their curriculum in order to train future leaders
in addressing social issues within their organizations.11 This is especially important
because there is a growing need for understanding the means and outcomes of corporate social responsibility (CSR).12
In today’s competitive and demanding workplace, employees and managers alike
cannot succeed by virtue of their technical skills alone. They also must exhibit good people skills. This text has been written to help people in organizations develop those skills
along with the knowledge that understanding human behavior provides. In so doing, we
believe you will obtain lasting skills and insight about yourself and others.
More than ever, individuals are placed into management positions without sufficient management training or informed experience. According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics,
employers with 100–500 employees provide less than one hour of management training
per six-month period, on average.13 Furthermore, according to a large-scale survey, more
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Chapter 1 • What Is Organizational Behavior?
than 58 percent of managers reported they had not received any training and 25 percent
admitted they were not ready to lead others when they were given the role.14 Added to that
challenge, the demands of the job have increased: The average manager has seven direct
reports (five was once the norm) and spends less time supervising them than managers of
the past.15 Considering that a Gallup poll found organizations chose the wrong candidate
for management positions 82 percent of the time,16 we conclude that the more you can
learn about people and how to manage them, the better prepared you will be to be that
right candidate. OB will help you get there.
Effective Versus Successful Managerial Activities
What makes one manager more effective than another? To answer this question, Fred
Luthans, a prominent OB researcher, and associates looked at what managers do from a
unique perspective.17 They asked, “Do managers who move up most quickly in an organization do the same activities and with the same emphasis as managers who do the best
job?” You might think the answer is yes, but that is not always the case.
Luthans and associates studied more than 450 managers. All engaged in four managerial activities:
1. Traditional management. Decision making, planning, and controlling.
2. Communication. Exchanging routine information and processing paperwork.
3. Human resources (HR) management. Motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing, and training.
4. Networking. Socializing, politicking, and interacting with outsiders.
The “average” manager spent 32 percent of their time in traditional management
activities, 29 percent communicating, 20 percent in HR management activities, and
19 percent networking. However, the time and effort different individual managers spent
on those activities varied a great deal. Among managers who were successful (defined
in terms of speed of promotion within their organizations), networking made the
largest relative contribution to success and HR management activities made the least
relative contribution. Indeed, other studies in Australia, Israel, Italy, Japan, and the
United States confirm the link between networking, social relationships, and success
within an organization.18 However, Luthans and associates found that among effective managers (defined in terms of quantity and quality of their performance and the
satisfaction and commitment of their employees), communication made the largest
relative contribution and networking the least. The connection between communication
and effective managers is also clear. Managers who explain their decisions and seek
information from colleagues and employees—even if the information turns out to be
negative—are the most effective.19
Organizational Behavior (OB) Defined
Now that we have established what managers do and why this is important for OB, we
turn our focus more broadly toward how people behave in organizations.
Organizational behavior (OB) is a field of study that investigates the impact that
individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations for the purpose
M01_ROBB6664_15_GE_C01.indd 29
A field of study
that investigates
the impact that
individuals, groups,
and structure have
on behavior within
organizations, for the
purpose of applying
such knowledge
toward improving
an organization’s
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Part 1 • Understanding Yourself and Others
of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness. That is a
mouthful, so let us break it down.
OB is a field of study, meaning that it is a distinct area of expertise with a common body of knowledge. It focuses on three determinants of behavior in organizations:
individuals, groups, and structure. In addition, OB applies the knowledge gained about
individuals, groups, and the effect of structure on behavior in order to make organizations work more effectively.
To sum up our definition, OB is the study of what people do in an organization and
the way their behavior affects the organization’s performance. Because OB is concerned
specifically with employment-related situations, it examines behavior in the context of
job satisfaction, absenteeism, employment turnover, productivity, human performance,
and management. Although debate exists about the relative importance of each, OB
includes these core topics:20
• Motivation
• Leader behavior and power
• Interpersonal communication
• Group structure and processes
• Attitude development and perception
• Change processes
• Conflict and negotiation
• Work design
Systematic study
Looking at
attempting to attribute
causes and effects, and
drawing conclusions
based on scientific
management (EBM)
The basing of
managerial decisions
on the best available
scientific evidence.
An instinctive feeling
not necessarily
supported by research.
Whether you have explicitly thought about it before or not, you have been “reading”
people almost all your life by watching their actions and interpreting what you see, or by
trying to predict what people might do under different conditions. The casual approach
to reading others can often lead to erroneous predictions, but using a systematic approach can improve your accuracy.
Underlying the systematic approach is the belief that behavior is not random.
Rather, we can identify consistencies underlying people’s behavior and modify them to
reflect individual differences.
These fundamental consistencies are very important. Why? Because they allow
predictability. Behavior is generally predictable, and the systematic study of behavior is
a way to make reasonably accurate predictions. When we use the term systematic study,
we mean looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects, and basing
our conclusions on scientific evidence—that is, on data gathered under controlled conditions and measured, and interpreted, in a rigorous manner.
Evidence-based management (EBM) complements systematic study by basing
managerial decisions on the best available scientific evidence. For example, we want
doctors to make decisions about patient care based on the latest available evidence,
and EBM argues that managers should do the same, thinking more scientifically about
management problems. You might wonder what manager would not base decisions on
evidence, but most management decisions are still made “on the fly,” with little to no
systematic study of available evidence.21
Systematic study and EBM add to intuition, or those “gut feelings” about what
makes others (and ourselves) “tick.” Of course, the things you have come to believe in
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Chapter 1 • What Is Organizational Behavior?
an unsystematic way are not necessarily incorrect; one review of hundreds of studies
suggest that data-driven judgments (based on algorithms) were about 10 percent more
accurate than human’s intuitive judgments.22 Another study found that, contrary to conventional wisdom, laypeople may actually prefer data-driven judgments to judgments
made by others (e.g., experts) and even to judgments made by themselves.23 Jack Welch
(former CEO of General Electric) noted, “The trick, of course, is to know when to go
with your gut.”24 But if we make all decisions with intuition or gut instinct, we are likely
working with incomplete information—like making an investment decision with only
half the data about the potential for risk and reward.
Building on Big Data with Artificial Intelligence
Data has been used to evaluate behavior since at least 1749, when the word statistic
was coined to mean a “description of the state.”25 Statistics back then were used for
purposes of governance, but since the data collection methods were clumsy and simplistic, so were the conclusions. Big data—the extensive use of statistical compilation and
analysis—did not become possible until computers were sophisticated enough to both
store and manipulate large amounts of information.26 Let us look at the current use of
the application of big data for business, which originated in the marketing department
of online retailers.
No matter how many terabytes of data firms collect or from how
many sources, the reasons for data analytics include predicting events, from a book
purchase to a spacesuit malfunction; detecting how much risk is incurred at any time,
from the risk of a fire to that of a loan default; and preventing catastrophes large and
small, from a plane crash to the overstocking of a product.27 With big data, U.S. defense
contractor BAE Systems protects itself from cyberattacks, San Francisco’s Bank of
the West uses customer data to create tiered pricing systems, and London’s
analyzes customers’ preferences to select snack samples to send with their orders.28
Organizations are also beginning to focus more on fast data, drawing on a consistent
influx of actionable data that can be used to guide business decisions in real time.29
NEW TRENDS The use of big data for understanding, helping, and managing people is
relatively new but holds promise. It is good news for the future of business that researchers,
the media, and company leaders have identified the potential of data-driven management
and decision making. A manager who uses data to define objectives, develop theories of
causality, and test those theories can determine which employee activities are relevant
to accomplishing those objectives.30 Increasingly, big data is applied toward making
effective decisions (which we discuss in the chapter on perception and individual decision
making) and managing organizational change (discussed in the chapter on organizational
change and stress management). Big data has enabled organizations to acquire and
manage large amounts of data and information. Even more recent advancements have
shifted toward how to process and analyze all this information.31 One way organizations
have been able to adapt to the massive amounts of and sheer speed at which data is
acquired is through artificial intelligence (i.e., machines programmed to think, work, and
react like humans).32 When you think of artificial intelligence, your mind may wander to
robots, regardless of your status as a Star Trek or Star Wars fan. We are certainly seeing
robotics becoming used in the workplace (for example, robots can help hospital night
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Part 1 • Understanding Yourself and Others
staff remotely assist their patients during night rounds).33 However, much of the modern
focus has been on machine learning (i.e., a subset of AI in which software is trained to
perform a task, while at the same time “learning” and “improving” from incoming data
and feedback).34 Indeed, 60 percent of the billions of dollars invested in AI has been
allocated toward machine learning.35 Machine learning has contributed immensely to
the success of a number of organizations, especially those in the e-commerce industry;
one estimate suggests that over a third of Amazon transactions stem from AI-facilitated
product recommendations.36 In the coming chapters, we discuss how and in what
ways artificial intelligence approaches, including robotics and machine learning, have
contributed to the study and practice of OB.
LIMITATIONS As technological capabilities for handling big data and artificial
intelligence have increased, so have issues of privacy and appropriate application.37
This is particularly true when data collection includes surveillance instruments. For
instance, an experiment in Brooklyn, New York, has been designed to improve the
quality of life for residents, but the researchers will collect potentially intrusive data
from infrared cameras, sensors, and smartphone Wi-Fi signals.38 Bread Winners
Café in Dallas, Texas, constantly monitors all employees in the restaurant through
surveillance and uses that data to promote or discipline its servers.39 These big
data tactics and others might yield results—and research indicates that surveillance
may increase task performance and citizenship behavior (helping behaviors toward
others), at least in the short term.40 But critics point out that after Frederick Taylor
introduced surveillance analytics in 1911 to increase productivity, these techniques
were surpassed by Alfred Sloan’s greater success, achieved by providing meaningful
work to employees.41
The use of artificial intelligence also has its own issues of privacy and appropriate application.42 Despite traditional concerns regarding the safety and job security
threats robots and automation bring to mind,43 perhaps the simplest limitation here is
that machines can often fail to capture the obvious “big picture” and may ignore their
own limits.44 For example, an algorithm may inadvertently include pizza topping preferences in predicting which employees are more likely to steal at work (you have to watch
out for those pineapple pizza lovers!). As such, it is important for machine learning to
be supervised to avoid atheoretical predictions and decision making. AI may also be
used to engage in unethical behaviors at work. For example, Facebook banned a large
UK car insurance company from mining users’ social media information, learning their
personality traits, and charging them different premiums based on their personality traits
(and predictions for how safely they would drive).45
Overall, we are not advising you to throw your intuition out the window. We are
also not advising you to base all your decisions on a machine learning algorithm. In
dealing with people, leaders often rely on hunches, and sometimes the outcomes are
excellent. At other times, human tendencies get in the way. What we are advising is to
use evidence as much as possible to inform your intuition and experience. The prudent
use of big data and artificial intelligence, along with an understanding of human behavioral tendencies, can contribute to sound decision making and ease natural biases. What
we are advising is to use evidence as much as possible to inform your intuition and
experience. That is the promise of OB.
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Chapter 1 • What Is Organizational Behavior?
OB is an applied behavioral science built on contributions from several behavioral
disciplines, mainly psychology and social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.
Psychology’s contributions have been principally at the individual or micro-level of
analysis, while the other disciplines have contributed to our understanding of macro
concepts such as group processes and organization. Exhibit 1-1 is an overview of the
major contributions to the study of OB.
Psychology seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans
and other animals. Contributors to the knowledge of OB are learning theorists; personality theorists; counseling psychologists; and, most important, industrial and organizational psychologists.
Early industrial and organizational psychologists studied the problems of fatigue,
boredom, and other working conditions that could impede efficient work performance.
More recently, their contributions have expanded to include learning, perception, personality, emotions, training, leadership effectiveness, needs and motivational forces, job
Social psychology
Leadership effectiveness
Job satisfaction
Individual decision making
Performance appraisal
Attitude measurement
Employee selection
Work design
Work stress
Toward an OB
Behavioral chang e
Attitude change
Group processes
Group decision making
Intergroup behavior
Unit of
The science that seeks
to measure, explain,
and sometimes change
the behavior of humans
and other animals.
Study of
Formal organization theory
Organizational technology
Organizational change
Organizational culture
Comparative value s
Comparative attitudes
Cross-cultural analysis
Organizational culture
Organizational environment
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satisfaction, decision-making processes, performance appraisal, attitude measurement,
employee-selection techniques, work design, and job stress.
Social Psychology
Social psychology
An area of psychology
that blends concepts
from psychology and
sociology to focus on
the influence of people
on one another.
Social psychology, generally considered a branch of psychology, blends concepts from
both psychology and sociology to focus on people’s influence on one another. One
major study area is change—how to implement it and how to reduce barriers to its acceptance. Social psychologists also contribute to measuring, understanding, and changing attitudes; identifying communication patterns; and building trust. Finally, they have
made important contributions to our study of group behavior, power, and conflict.
The study of people in
relation to their social
environment or culture.
While psychology focuses on the individual, sociology studies people in relation to their
social environment or culture. Sociologists have contributed to OB through their study of
group behaviors in organizations, particularly formal and complex organizations. Perhaps
most importantly, sociologists have studied organizational culture, formal organization
theory and structure, organizational technology, communications, power, and conflict.
The study of societies
to learn about human
beings and their
Anthropology is the study of societies in order to learn about human beings and their
activities. Anthropologists’ work on cultures and environments has helped us understand
differences in fundamental values, attitudes, and behavior among people in different
countries and within different organizations. Much of our current understanding of organizational culture, organizational climate, and differences among national cultures is a
result of the work of anthropologists or those using their methods.
Situational factors or
variables that moderate
the relationship
between two or more
Laws in the physical sciences—chemistry, astronomy, physics—are consistent and
apply in a wide range of situations. They allow scientists to generalize about the pull of
gravity or to be confident about sending astronauts into space to repair satellites. Human
beings are complex, and few, if any, simple principles explain human behavior. Because
we are not alike, our ability to make generalizations about ourselves is limited. Two
people often act very differently in the same situation, and the same person’s behavior
changes in different situations. For example, not everyone is motivated by money, and
you may behave much more differently during a job interview than you would hanging
out with your friends on a Saturday morning.
This does not mean, of course, that we cannot offer reasonably accurate explanations of human behavior. It does mean that OB concepts must reflect situational, or
contingency, conditions. We can say x leads to y, but only under conditions specified in
z—the contingency variables.
OB was developed by applying general concepts to a particular situation, person,
or group. For example, OB practitioners would avoid stating that everyone likes complex and challenging work (a generalization). Why? Because not everyone wants a challenging job. Some people prefer routine over varied work, or simple over complex tasks.
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Chapter 1 • What Is Organizational Behavior?
A job attractive to one person may be unattractive to another; its appeal is contingent
on the person who holds it. Often, we will find both general effects (money does have
some ability to motivate most of us) and contingencies (some of us are more motivated
by money than others, and some situations are more about money than others). We will
best understand OB when we realize how both (general effects and the contingencies
that affect them) often guide behavior.
Understanding organizational behavior has never been more important for managers.
Take a quick look at the dramatic changes in organizations. The workforce is becoming
increasingly diverse; and global competition requires employees to become more flexible and cope with rapid change.
As a result of these changes and others, employment options have adapted to include
new opportunities for workers. Exhibit 1-2 details some of the types of options individuals
may find offered to them by organizations or for which they would like to negotiate. Under
each heading in the exhibit, you will find a grouping of options from which to choose—or
combine. For instance, at one point in your career you may find yourself employed full
Employment Options
Sources: J. R. Anderson Jr., et al., “Action Items: 42 Trends Affecting Benefits, Compensation, Training, Staffing
and Technology,” HR Magazine (January 2013) p. 33; M. Dewhurst, B. Hancock, and D. Ellsworth, “Redesigning
Knowledge Work,” Harvard Business Review (January–February 2013), 58–64; E. Frauenheim, “Creating a New
Contingent Culture,“Workforce Management (August 2012), 34–9; N. Koeppen, “State Job Aid Takes Pressure off
Germany,” The Wall Street Journal (February 1, 2013), p. A8; M. A. Shaffer, M. L. Kraimer, Y,-P. Chen, and M.C. Bolino,
“Choices, Challenges, and Career Consequences of Global Work Experiences: A Review and Future Agenda,” Journal
of Management (July 2012), 1282–327.
Categories of
Types of
Places of
Conditions of
for Employment
Floating (shared
Short-term assignee
Job share
Work from home
business traveler
Visa employee
Time off
Job seeking
Reduced hours
Laid off
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time in an office in a localized, nonunion setting with a salary and bonus compensation
package, while at another point you may wish to negotiate for a flextime, virtual position
and choose to work from overseas for a combination of salary and extra paid time off.
In short, today’s challenges bring opportunities for managers to use OB concepts.
In this section, we review some—but not nearly all—of the critical developing issues
confronting managers and employees for which OB offers solutions or, at least, meaningful insights toward solutions.
The process in which
worldwide integration
and interdependence
is promoted across
national borders.
Globalization has led organizations, leaders, and employees to become increasingly
connected across the globe, now more than ever.46 Samsung, the largest South Korean
business conglomerate, sells most of its products to organizations in other countries;
Burger King is owned by a Brazilian firm; and McDonald’s sells hamburgers in 101
countries on six continents. Although globalization united the international community
following the second World War, the slow recovery from the global financial crisis has
caused much of the world’s population to be embittered by globalization.47 In modern
times, the world is at a tension point in which societies are choosing between sectioning
off their economies versus remaining open to the world, given how globalization can
change the employment landscape rapidly for many communities, sometimes resulting in poverty and economic inequality.48 Meanwhile, we are on the brink of a new
Industrial Revolution that has disrupted many industries and left many without jobs.49
One of the new challenges of this tide of globalization is to forge cooperation between
the public and its constituents, and between organizations and their employees across
the globe, to pursue the public good with social responsibility in mind.
Furthermore, as a result of globalization, the manager’s job has changed. To be
effective in the workplace, you should try to anticipate and adapt your approach to the
global issues we discuss next.
on foreign assignment, you will find yourself working with bosses, peers, and other
employees born and raised in different cultures. What motivates you may not motivate
them. Or your communication style may be straightforward and open, which others
may find uncomfortable and threatening. To work effectively with people from different
cultures, you need to understand how their culture and background have shaped them
and how to adapt your management style to accommodate these differences.
managers need to know the cultural norms of the workforce in each country where they
do business. For instance, in some countries a large percentage of the workforce enjoys
long holidays. There are national and local regulations to consider, too. Managers of
subsidiaries abroad need to be aware of the unique financial and legal regulations applying
to “guest companies” or else risk violating them. Violations can have implications for
their operations in that country and for political relations between countries. Managers
also need to be cognizant of differences in regulations for competitors in that country;
many times, understanding the laws can lead to success or failure. For example,
knowing local banking laws allowed one multinational firm—the Bank of China—to
seize control of a storied (and very valuable) London building, Grosvenor House Hotel,
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Chapter 1 • What Is Organizational Behavior?
from the owner, the Indian hotel group Sahara. Management at Sahara contended that
the loan default that led to the seizure was a misunderstanding regarding one of their
other properties in New York.50 Globalization can get complicated.
Workforce Demographics
The workforce has always adapted to variations in the economy, longevity, birth rates,
socioeconomic conditions, and other changes that have a widespread impact. People
adapt to survive, and OB studies the way those adaptations affect individuals’ behavior.
For instance, even though the 2008 global recession ended many years ago, some trends
from those years are continuing: many people who have been long unemployed have left
the workforce,51 while others have cobbled together several part-time jobs52 or settled
for on-demand work.53 Further options that have been particularly popular for younger
educated workers have included obtaining specialized industry training after college,54
accepting full-time jobs that are lower level,55 and starting their own companies.56
Longevity and birth rates have also changed the dynamics in organizations. Global
longevity rates have increased by about six years in a short time (since 2000—the fastest increase since the 1960s),57 while birth rates are decreasing for many developed
countries, trends that together indicate a lasting shift toward an older workforce. OB
research can help explain what this means for employee attitudes, organizational culture, leadership, structure, and communication. Finally, socioeconomic shifts have a
profound effect on workforce demographics. For example, equal access to work and
education, regardless of gender identity or sexual orientation, has been deemed a human
rights issue by the United Nations.58 Despite increasing representation in the workforce,
people of various demographic backgrounds (e.g., gender identities and sexual orientations) continue to experience inequality, under-representation as managers, prejudice,
and even violence.59 OB researchers study how people from diverse backgrounds fare
in the workplace and the unique challenges and benefits they experience as well as how
their conditions can be improved. This is just one illustration of how cultural and socioeconomic changes affect the workplace, but it is one of many. We discuss how OB can
provide understanding and insight on workforce issues throughout this text.
Workforce Diversity
One of the most important challenges for organizations is in managing increasing
­workforce diversity, a trend by which organizations are becoming more heterogeneous
in terms of employees’ gender, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and other characteristics. Though we have more to say about it in the next chapter, diversity presents
great opportunities and poses challenging questions for managers and employees. How
can we recognize the strengths in our diversity? Should we treat all employees alike,
or adapt to accommodate each other’s differences? What are the legal requirements in
each country that protect workplaces from prejudice, discrimination, and inequality?
Does workforce diversity lead to positive outcomes for employees and organizations?
It is important to address the spoken and unspoken concerns of organizations today.
Workforce diversity
The concept that
organizations are
becoming more
heterogeneous in
terms of gender, age,
race, ethnicity, sexual
orientation, and other
Social Media
As we discuss in the chapter on communication, social media in the business world
is here to stay. Despite its pervasiveness, many organizations continue to struggle
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with employees’ use of social media in the workplace. For instance, in February
2015, a Texas pizzeria fired an employee before the first day of work because of
an unflattering tweet about the job. In December 2014, Nordstrom fired an Oregon
employee who had posted a personal Facebook comment seeming to advocate violence against police officers.60 These examples show that social media is a difficult
issue for today’s managers, presenting both a challenge and an opportunity for OB.
For instance, how much should HR investigate a candidate’s social media presence?
Should a hiring manager read the candidate’s Twitter feeds, or just do a quick perusal of their Facebook profile? How can managers attract applicants and customers
through their own social media presence?61 Managers need to adopt evidence-based
policies designed to protect employees and their organizations with balance and
Once employees are on the job, many organizations have policies about accessing
social media at work—when, where, and for what purposes. But what about the impact
of social media on employee well-being? One recent study found that subjects who woke
up in a positive mood and then accessed Facebook frequently found their mood worsened during the day. Moreover, subjects who checked Facebook frequently over a twoweek period reported a decreased level of satisfaction with their lives.62 Managers—and
OB—are trying to increase employee satisfaction and therefore improve and enhance
positive organizational outcomes. We will discuss these issues further in the chapters on
attitudes and job satisfaction and emotions and moods.
Employee Well-Being at Work
An area of OB
research that concerns
how organizations
develop human
strengths, foster
vitality and resilience,
and unlock potential.
One of the biggest challenges to maintaining employee well-being is the reality that
many workers never get away from the virtual workplace. While communication technology allows many technical and professional employees to do their work at home,
in their cars, or on the beach in Tahiti, it also means many feel like they are not part of
a team. “The sense of belonging is very challenging for virtual workers, who seem to
be all alone out in cyberland,” said Ellen Raineri of Kaplan University.63 Another challenge is that organizations are asking employees to put in longer hours. According to
one recent study, one in four employees shows signs of burnout, and two in three report
high stress levels and fatigue.64 This may be an underestimate because workers report
maintaining “always on” access for their managers through e-mail and texting. Finally,
employee well-being is challenged by heavy outside commitments. Millions of singleparent employees and employees with dependent parents face significant challenges in
balancing work and family responsibilities, for instance.
As you will see in later chapters, the field of OB offers several suggestions to
guide managers in designing workplaces and jobs that can help employees deal with
work–life conflicts. Furthermore, there are several suggestions for managing stress and
preventing burnout that you can apply, both in school and in the workplace.
Positive Work Environment
A growing area in OB research is positive organizational scholarship (POS; also
called positive organizational behavior), which studies how organizations develop
human strengths, foster vitality and resilience, and unlock potential. Researchers
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Chapter 1 • What Is Organizational Behavior?
in this area say too much of OB research and management practice has been targeted toward identifying what is wrong with organizations and their employees.
In response, they try to study what is good about them. 65 Some key subjects in
positive OB research are engagement, hope, optimism, and resilience in the face
of strain.
Although positive organizational scholarship does not deny the value of the negative (such as critical feedback), it does challenge us to look at OB through a new lens,
pushing organizations to make use of employees’ strengths rather than dwell on their
limitations. One aspect of a positive work environment is the organization’s culture,
the topic of the chapter on organizational culture. Organizational culture influences
employee behavior so strongly that organizations have employed “culture officers” to
shape and preserve the company’s personality.66
Ethical Behavior
In an organizational world characterized by cutbacks, expectations of increasing productivity, and tough competition; it is not surprising many employees feel pressured to
cut corners, break rules, and engage in other questionable practices. Increasingly they
face ethical dilemmas and ethical choices in which they are required to identify right
and wrong conduct. Should they “blow the whistle” if they uncover illegal activities
in their companies? Do they follow orders with which they do not personally agree?
Should they “play politics” to advance their careers?
What constitutes good ethical behavior has never been clearly defined, and the
line differentiating right from wrong is blurry. We see people all around us engaging
in unethical practices: Elected officials pad expense accounts or take bribes; corporate
executives inflate profits to cash in lucrative stock options; and university administrators look the other way when winning coaches encourage scholarship athletes to take
easy courses or even, in the recent case at the University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill,
sham courses with fake grades.67 When caught, we see people give excuses such as
“Everyone does it” or “You have to seize every advantage.”
Today’s manager must create an ethically healthy climate for employees in which
they can do their work productively with minimal ambiguity about right and wrong
behaviors. Companies that promote a strong ethical mission, encourage employees to
behave with integrity, and provide strong leadership can influence employee decisions
to behave ethically.68 Classroom training sessions in ethics have also proven helpful
in maintaining a higher level of awareness of the implications of employee choices as
long as the training sessions are given on an ongoing basis.69 In upcoming chapters, we
discuss the actions managers can take to create an ethically healthy climate and help
employees sort through ambiguous situations.
Ethical dilemmas and
ethical choices
Situations in which
individuals are
required to define right
and wrong conduct.
We conclude this chapter by presenting a general model that defines the field of OB and
stakes out its parameters, concepts, and relationships. By studying the model, you will
have a good picture of how the topics in this text can inform your approach to management issues and opportunities.
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A Basic OB Model
Individual Level
• Diversity
• Personality
• Values
Individual Level
• Emotions and moods
• Motivation
• Perception
• Decision making
Individual Level
• Attitudes and stress
• Task performance
• Citizenship behavior
• Withdrawal behavior
Group Level
• Group structure
• Group roles
• Team responsibilities
Group Level
• Communication
• Leadership
• Power and politics
• Conflict and negotiation
Group Level
• Group cohesion
• Group functioning
Organizational Level
• Structure
• Culture
Organizational Level
• Human resource
• Change practices
Organizational Level
• Productivity
• Survival
An Overview
An abstraction of
reality, a simplified
representation of
some real-world
A model is an abstraction of reality, a simplified representation of some real-world
phenomenon. Exhibit 1-3 presents the skeleton of our OB model. It proposes three
types of variables (inputs, processes, and outcomes) at three levels of analysis (individual, group, and organizational). In the chapters to follow, we proceed from the
individual level (Chapters 2 through 8) to group behavior (Chapters 9 through 14) to
the organizational system (Chapters 15 through 17). The model illustrates that inputs
lead to processes, which lead to outcomes; we discuss interrelationships at each level
of analysis. Notice that the model also shows that outcomes can influence inputs in
the future, which highlights the broad-reaching effect OB initiatives can have on an
organization’s future.
Variables like
personality, group
structure, and
organizational culture
that lead to processes.
Inputs are variables like personality, group structure, and organizational culture that
lead to processes. These variables set the stage for what will occur in an organization
later. Many are determined in advance of the employment relationship. For example,
individual diversity characteristics, personality, and values are shaped by a combination of an individual’s genetic inheritance and childhood environment. Group structure,
roles, and team responsibilities are typically assigned immediately before or after a
group is formed. Organizational structure and culture are usually the result of years of
development and change as the organization adapts to its environment and builds up
customs and norms.
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If inputs are like the nouns in OB, processes are like verbs. Processes are actions that
individuals, groups, and organizations engage in as a result of inputs and that lead to certain outcomes. At the individual level, processes include emotions and moods, motivation, perception, and decision making. At the group level, they include communication,
leadership, power and politics, and conflict and negotiation. Finally, at the organizational level, processes include HR management and change practices.
Actions that
individuals, groups,
and organizations
engage in as a result of
inputs and that lead to
certain outcomes.
Outcomes are the key variables that you want to explain or predict, and that are affected
by other variables. What are the primary outcomes in OB? Scholars have emphasized
individual-level outcomes, such as attitudes and stress, task performance, citizenship
behavior, and withdrawal behavior. At the group level, cohesion and functioning are
the dependent variables. At the organizational level, we look at overall productivity and
survival. Because these outcomes are covered in all the chapters, we briefly discuss each
so you can understand the goal of OB.
ATTITUDES AND STRESS Employee attitudes are the evaluations that employees
make, ranging from positive to negative, about objects, people, or events. For example,
the statement “I really think my job is great” is a positive job attitude, while “My job
is boring and tedious” is a negative job attitude. Stress is a psychological process that
occurs in response to environmental pressures.
Some people might think influencing employee attitudes and stress is purely soft
stuff, but as you will learn, attitudes often have behavioral consequences that directly
relate to how well you do your job. Ample evidence shows that employees who are more
satisfied and treated fairly are more willing to engage in the above-and-beyond citizenship behavior that is so vital in the contemporary business environment.
TASK PERFORMANCE The combination of effectiveness and efficiency at doing
your core job tasks is a reflection of your level of task performance. If we think
about the job of a factory worker, task performance could be measured by the number
and quality of products produced in an hour. The task performance measurement of
a teacher would be the level of education that students obtain. The task performance
measurement of consultants might be the timeliness and quality of the presentations
they offer to the client. All these types of performance relate to the core duties and
responsibilities of a job and are often directly related to the functions listed on a
formal job description.
The discretionary behavior
that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirements, and that contributes to the
psychological and social environment of the workplace, is called organizational
citizenship behavior (OCB), or simply citizenship behavior. Successful organizations
have employees who do more than their usual job duties—who provide performance
beyond expectations. Organizations want and need employees who make positive
contributions that are not in any job description, and evidence indicates organizations
M01_ROBB6664_15_GE_C01.indd 41
Key factors that are
affected by some other
Evaluative statements
or judgments
concerning objects,
people, or events.
A psychological
process in which
an individual is
confronted with
an opportunity,
demand, or resource
related to what the
individual desires
and for which the
outcome is perceived
to be both uncertain
and important (e.g.,
Task performance
The combination of
effectiveness and
efficiency at doing
core job tasks.
citizenship behavior
Discretionary behavior
that contributes to the
psychological and
social environment of
the workplace.
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Part 1 • Understanding Yourself and Others
that have such employees outperform those that do not. As a result, OB is concerned
with citizenship behavior as an outcome variable.
Withdrawal behavior
The set of actions
employees take to
separate themselves
from the organization.
Group cohesion
The extent to which
members of a group
support and validate
one another while at
Group functioning
The quantity and
quality of a group’s
work output.
The combination
of the effectiveness
and efficiency of an
The degree to which an
organization meets the
needs of its clientele or
The degree to which
an organization can
achieve its ends at a
low cost.
The degree to which an
organization is able to
exist and grow over the
long term.
WITHDRAWAL BEHAVIOR We have already mentioned behavior that goes above
and beyond task requirements, but what about behavior that in some way is below task
requirements? Withdrawal behavior is the set of actions that employees take to separate
themselves from the organization. There are many forms of withdrawal, ranging from
showing up late or failing to attend meetings to absenteeism and turnover. Employee
withdrawal can have a very negative effect on an organization.
GROUP COHESION Although many outcomes in our model can be conceptualized as
individual-level phenomena, some relate to the way groups operate. Group cohesion
is the extent to which members of a group support and validate one another at work.
In other words, a cohesive group is one that sticks together. When employees trust one
another, seek common goals, and work together to achieve these common ends, the
group is cohesive; when employees are divided among themse…
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