For this assignment, you will need to create 4 annotations. Create 3 annotations that
provide facts (such as definitions, explanations, data, etc., directly from the reading) and 1
that adds an insight (connect to another idea in the course, current events, another
student’s comments, etc.) or asks a question.
Comment of a student that will need to be responded to(that adds an insight):
Quate a part of the text and then write a comment.
How to Analyze Case Problems
Understand the Facts
Before you can analyze or apply the relevant law to a specific set of facts, you must clearly
understand those facts. To clearly understand the facts, you should read through the case
information carefully – more than once if necessary – to make sure you understand the
plaintiff(s) and defendant(s) in the case and the progression of events that led to the
lawsuit. Law students and lawyers often use abbreviations for the parties. To indicate a
reference to a plaintiff, the pi symbol – 𝜋π – is often used, and a defendant is denoted by
a delta – ΔΔ – a triangle.
Legal Analysis and Reasoning
Once you understand the facts, you can begin to analyze the case. The IRAC method is a
helpful tool to use the analysis and reasoning process. IRAC is an acronym
for Issue, Rule, Application, and Conclusion.
Issue: first, you decide what legal issue is involved in the case. Let’s use a hypothetical
slip and fall at a grocery store due to a wet floor to walk through these steps. For
example, the issue is whether the grocery store failed to warn customers of the wet floor
and, therefore, was negligent.
Rule: once you have identified the issue, the next step is to determine what rule of
law applies to the issue. In the grocery store example, tort law says that business owners
owe a duty to protect their customers by using reasonable care. Reasonable care in this
context includes warning customers of foreseeable risks which the owner knew or should
have known about. If a business owner breaches this duty of care and the breach of duty
causes a customer to be injured, the business owner will be liable for the customer’s
Application: the next step is the application of the relevant rule of law to the specific facts
of the case. In the grocery store example, an employee just mopped the floor in the aisle
where the customer slipped and fell and there wasn’t a sign warning of a wet floor. That
a customer might fall on a wet floor is clearly a foreseeable risk. Therefore, the failure to
warn customers about the wet floor was a breach of the duty of care owed by the grocery
store to its customers.
Conclusion: Once you have completed step 3 in the IRAC method, you should be ready to
draw a conclusion. For example, the grocery store is liable to customer for his injuries
because the store’s breach of its duty of care caused the customer’s injuries.
Often, the fact patterns aren’t as simple as the grocery store example. There may be more
than one issue in a case and one or more applicable rule of law. There may also be a
defense – possibly, the employee verbally told the customer to avoid the area. Give this
method a try as you read through the cases. Hopefully, it will help you in this course and
How to annotate assignments:
Highlight words and concepts that are unclear to you, look them up, then
share what you found in a comment. Remember to include the source of your
Share facts and descriptions from the text that surprise you and tell us why.
Engage each text in multiple places.
Ask questions (using a “?” in your comment in Perusall automatically turns it
into a question).
Read the comments and questions posed by others.
Answer the questions of your classmates by “mentioning” them (use @ to tag a
classmate in your response so that the individual knows you are directly
Upvote comments or questions you find helpful.
Connect ideas found in the readings to the real life experiences you have or
Use the picture tool to add a visual element to your annotation or illustrate
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