Thus, leadership that is capable of identifying an organization’s strengths will
likely steer the organization in the direction of success while addressing its
weaknesses(Cohen,2020). Thus, it is suggested that the leadership focus should
be on the problem, rather than on setting strategic direction, but on managing the
problem through provision of a solution.
used to determine an organization’s success or failure. Vision and mission define
direction and serve as the foundation for strategy; however, when the vision is
unable to differentiate itself from competitors; when there is a lack of inspiration
and excitement, the organization fails. Thus, the role of the leader is to ensure
success by establishing an effective vision that can differentiate the organization
from competitors; able to excite and inspire people
Ability to inspire and motivate:
The importance of intrinsic motivation has increased thus leadership must
inspire people to accomplish the vision. freedom of expression; and creativity,
among other things(Holten, Dent and Rabbetts,2016). Thus, leaders should
mend ways and means that inspire people to follow the organization’s strategic
Communication and Proliferation:
Thus, in order to realize the vision, leadership must learn and implement these
technologies in order to manage the organization’s strategic direction(Deiser and
Collaboration and Adaptive
Leadership styles with learned leadership styles are no more effective.Therefore
,leadership styles must adapt to 21st-century culture and emerging situations. As
a result, leadership must adopt a more collaborative approach in order to
leverage the 21st century’s skilled and competent manpower(Deiser and
Newton,2019). Leadership cannot achieve strategic direction through a directive
or authoritative approach with top-down communication.
Ability to analyze and solve problems:
Management cannot provide solutions without the ability to critically analyze the
situation. Thus, leadership requires involving people within the organization in
analysis and solution provision in order to align them with the vision and instill a
sense of pride in them.
Cohen,S. (2020) Definition of Leadership,[online]. Available from:
Deiser,R. and Newton,S. (2019) Social technology and the changing context of
leadership, [online]. Available from:
Ibaraa,H. and Hansen,M. (2017) Are you a collaborative leader? Harvard
Business Review, 89(7-8):68-74.
Holten,V., Dent, F. and Rabbetts,J. (2016) Motivation and Employee
Engagement in the 21st century: a survey of management views,[online].
Available from: https://www.ashridge.org.uk/Media-Library/Ashridge
The factors other than ‘Skill and knowledge’ in leadership and strategic
management that help in achieving organisational vision and strategy are :(1) Leadership style and trait
(2) Organisational hierarchical structure
(3) Organizational culture
(4) Resistant to Change Management strategies
(5) External environment factors
(6) Internal competition and Industrial Rivalary
(8) Transparency of communication within levels of management
(9) Experience of leader
(10) Technology and updated changes within and external to organisation.
(11) Internal operational functions and activities (processes, procedures)
(12) Planning and management’s long term or short term strategies
(13) Allocation of resources among departments and branches (resources could
be man, material, machinery, money)
(14) Internal control check points
(15) Human Resource management
(16) Stakeholder’s interest and their level of expectation or satisfaction
(17) Risk assessment tools
(18) Project priority and evaluation.
(19) Union relationship and bargaining skill
(20) Government support and control
What are leadership theories?
Leadership theories are schools of thought that attempt to explain how and why
people become leaders. The theories stress the characteristics and activities that
people can use to improve their leadership qualities.
Theories of Leadership
1. The Great Man Hypothesis
Leaders are born with the ideal qualities and abilities for leading, according to the
Great Man Theory (which should really be named the Great Person Theory).
These traits and talents include charm, intellect, confidence, communication
skills, and social skills.
The notion proposes that leadership talent is innate, and that the finest leaders
are born rather than made. It portrays leaders as brave, legendary, and destined
to climb to the top when the time comes. Because leadership was reserved for
males at the period, notably in military leadership, the title “Great Man” was
2. Theory of Traits
The Great Man Theory and the Trait Theory are extremely similar. It is based on
the traits of various leaders, both successful and unsuccessful. The hypothesis is
utilized to determine whether or not a person will be a good leader. Typically, the
discovered attributes are compared to those of potential leaders to establish
whether or not they have the ability to lead effectively.
Researchers studying the trait theory aim to uncover leadership characteristics
from a variety of angles. They look at physical characteristics like looks, weight,
and height, as well as demographics like age, education, and family background,
as well as intelligence, which includes decisiveness, judgment, and knowledge.
3. Theoretical Framework
Contingency theory cites many variables in a given context that determine the
most appropriate leadership style for this situation.
. It is based on the idea that there is no one-size-fits-all leadership style that can
be used in all situations.
The finest style of leadership, according to renowned leadership academics
Hodgson and White, is one that strikes the optimal balance between behaviors,
needs, and circumstance. Good leaders not only have the correct attributes, but
they can also assess their followers’ needs and the scenario at hand. In
conclusion, the contingency theory implies that exceptional leadership is the
result of a complex interaction of numerous factors.
4. Situational Analysis
The Situational Theory is similar to the Contingency Theory in that it claims that
no single leadership style is superior to the others. As the name implies, the
theory suggests that leadership is conditional on the context. Simply put, leaders
should match their leadership style to the scenario at hand by considering factors
such as the work at hand, the nature of their followers, and so on.
5. Behavioral theory.
Behavioral theory focuses on the specific behaviors and actions of leaders
rather than their traits or characteristics
According to the notion, good leadership is the consequence of a variety of
To lead their followers, people require three primary skills: technical, human, and
intellectual. Technical skills refer to a leader’s understanding of a process or
technique; human skills allude to one’s ability to engage with others; and
conceptual skills refer to the leader’s ability to come up with ideas for efficiently
running the company or society.
Ways of improving leadership skills
1. Make the most of your assets
Effective leadership, according to the Trait Theory, is dependent on one’s
personality qualities. Instead of focusing on their flaws, leaders should attempt to
focus on their strengths. The following are examples of strengths that differ from
one leader to the next:
Staying resilient and seeing leaders through difficult times requires a strong will.
No matter how difficult the situation may be, a strong-willed leader may discover
inner strength and persevere until all obstacles are conquered.
Another strength that some leaders have is their ability to make decisions. When
others are bewildered, decisiveness means that a leader can calmly appraise the
situation and choose one course of action.
2. Be a Leader Who Is Inclusive
The focus on humans is emphasized in some of the more complicated situational
theories. It implies that they see individuals as their most valuable assets, rather
than simply numbers in their workforce. Being an inclusive leader necessitates
involving others in one’s leadership at all times, whether it’s through always
inviting comments from others or delegating more responsibility to others than
other types of leadership.
3. Effective Listening
When it comes to giving a presentation in front of a group, developing and writing
a business strategy, or engaging with staff and clients, communication skills are
essential. Listening is one of the most critical communication skills for a leader.
You won’t be able to gain feedback from others or get a sense of what team
members like about the projects they work on if you don’t have good listening
impact to personal development
EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS
Communication is a talent that will aid you in gaining cooperation as well as
communicating your goals, views, and decisions to others in a clear and
understood manner. Communication skills is strongly related to the capacity to
win others’ cooperation and support through negotiation and influence. And all of
these qualities are critical for being a leader. Communication necessitates active
listening as well. You can’t have effective communication skills unless you can
listen well. Listen more and say less.
THE ABILITY TO RESOLVE PROBLEMS
People elect a leader because he possesses the ability to listen to their issues,
comprehend them, and provide a solution. Listen carefully to the issues and then
examine them. They could not be as simple to solve as they appear, or they
might not be as complex to handle as they appear. A leader is someone who is
prepared to solve an issue. Even though the solution is the most straightforward,
it may not register with everyone.
Being able to motivate others is also aided by having effective communication
abilities. A good leader is someone who, in addition to being self-motivated, can
also motivate others. Most of us are aware of how well we can do with only a
smidgeon of motivation. Furthermore, if the leader is driven, half of the work of
encouraging others has already been accomplished. A leader’s focus should be
on improving employee morale and setting an example for them. Allow your team
to participate in the planning and problem-solving process.
MANAGEMENT OF DECISIONS AND RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE RESULT.
People are terrified of making decisions because they are not prepared to bear
the repercussions of their actions. They avoid making decisions because they are
afraid of the repercussions. Leaders are secure in their abilities and, as a result,
they rarely hesitate to make judgments. Always keep in mind that you may make
a mistake when making a decision, but you should never quit up. Rather than
learning from your mistakes, you should just go ahead and do it.
AN EXTENSIVE VISION.
A vision should be created by a leader, who should then encourage others to
move in that direction. Your mission statement depicts the future. Your vision
reflects your outlook on life, what you want to accomplish, and how far you want
to go. Your vision directs you in the direction you wish to go, making your
directions more obvious. You’d be easily taken away by others’ expectations if
you didn’t have a vision.
Dugan, John P., and Susan R. Komives. “Leadership theories.” The handbook for
student leadership development (2011): 35-57.
Leadership refers to the aspects of individuals having the ability to guide and
influence other people t take action so as to fulfill a certain obligation at hand.
Leadership forms the base for inspiration and motivation to followers so as to
address their weaknesses and achieve a positive result that leads to satisfaction.
Leadership takes into practice acts of coordination and administration of tasks of
management in order to achieve a goal and it is facilitated through setting up a
clear strategy towards handling and addressing an issue of concern.
Leadership is facilitated by a range of skills which include problem solving,
integrity ability to influence among other skills. Integrity is associated with
aspects of a person to live with accordance to his own moral values of honesty
and the ability to walk the talk. Integrity as a skill ensures that their is trust for
leaders and managers and that it influences people to adapt and take into
consideration of facts a leader may come up with with accordance to a
formulated strategy. Integrity will therefore lead to the achievement of the
organizational strategy which includes organizational long term objectives and
short term objectives.
Problem solving skill is also essential in leadership management, for instance
not everyone within a group will take in a leaders concept or those of a teammate
lightly, an effective leader acknowledges that he has to have the ability to
effectively manage misunderstandings and conflicts and thus problem solving.
Problem solving skills take into account acts of defining a problem by determining
the cause of the problem, identifying the problem, prioritizing problems with
accordance how to be addressed, and the selection of alternative solutions to this
Problem solving is not only aimed at creating understanding but its also
associated with creating an effective organizational environment that will facilitate
the achievement f the organizational strategy, since team it establishes the
aspects of a team who work together as a system to influence the achievement of
results. Problem solving will lead to improved organizational outcomes of
efficiency and effectiveness.
Ability to influence others is a fundamental skill in leadership and management
too, influence entails inspiration of a team to take up job functions and tasks and
be effective in delivering services. An effective leader moves his followers into
Influencing others will lead to achievement of organizational operations since
every one will be motivated to deliver high results within his capability. This is
also important in the creation and achievement of organizational strategy like for
example an organizational strategy entails short term actions that need to be
achieved to enable the attainment of the long term goal. Influencing others is a
consistent activity that leads to a day to day improvement of team mates work
which enables and improves organizational operations within the strategy
Fairholm, M. R. (2009). Leadership and Organizational Strategy. Innovation
Vera, D., & Crossan, M. (2004). Strategic leadership and organizational
learning. Academy of management review, 29(2), 222-240.
Bachiochi, P. D., Rogelberg, S. G., O’Connor, M. S., & Elder, A. E. (2000). The
qualities of an effective team leader. Organization Development Journal, 18(1),
Management skills are the most important skills that managers need for the
thriving of the working environment, the following are some the management
skills for a successful achievements of organization strategy;
Good business leaders should create a vision and work on driving it into
completion. Great leaders have an idea of where they are going and what they
are trying to accomplish . They are great in strategic planning. This quality
separates leaders from managers . Having a clear vision turns the individual into
a transformational rather than a transactional manager.
A leader with integrity has nothing to fear since they have nothing to hide .
Integrity helps a leader to do the right thing and so they have nothing to feel guilt
about . In every strategic planning session in business corporation the first value
that all the gathered executives should agree upon for their company to thrive
should be integrity. They should agree on the importance of honesty in everything
that they do both internally and externally , a good leader should ensure that.
Strategy is not the consequence of planning , strategy is the starting point. Great
leaders are are outstanding at strategic planning . Great leaders have the ability
to anticipate trends well in advance of their competitors. Because of the
increasing competitiveness only the leaders that can accurately anticipate future
markets can possibly survive. Leaders with foresight will gain the first move
A good leader should identify how quickly people grant their requests when those
requests appeal to their self interests by so doing they will be able to get anything
they want. Leaders should have the ability to make everyone to work and pull
together for the essential success this is by making them want to work and not
forcing them to do so.
A good leader should be able to communicate with a wide range of people across
roles. geographies , and social identities. The best leaders are skilled
communicators who are able to communicate in a variety of ways from
transmitting information to inspiring others to coaching direct reports Effective
communication and better conversation can improve the organizational culture.
A good leader should influence . This is by being able to convince people through
logical , emotional , or cooperative appeals . It requires emotional intelligence and
trust to do so.
Empathy is correlated with job performance and is critical part of emotional
intelligence and leadership effectiveness. If you show more inclusive empathic
behaviors towards your core workers you will be more likely viewed as a better
performer. This will improve the work place condition and the people around you.
Treating people with respect at the work place is one of the most important thing
a leader can do. Respect will ease tension and conflict , create trust and improve
effectiveness at the workplace.
Management and Leadeship skills:
The importance of planning in an organization cannot be overstated.
A manager’s ability to communicate effectively is critical.
Decision-making is another important management skill.
Managers must be able to interact effectively with their personnel.
Communication is essential for achieving an organization’s goals, encouraging
individuals to support a strategy, generating commitment, and fostering rapport
Define expectations – they lay down clear expectations for staff, letting them know
what is expected of them.
Provide clarity – managers communicate with employees to avoid
misunderstandings and to clarify responsibilities and roles so that they can
execute their jobs and contribute to the organization efficiently.
Build relationships and trust – good communication between managers and
employees fosters long-term relationships.
According to TaskQue, the most effective team leaders are self-assured enough
to command others to obey their orders.
The ability to create realistic self-awareness defines these types of confident
managers in the workplace.
They aren’t scared to attempt anything new and provide employees the freedom
to complete tasks, make decisions, and take responsibilities.
Managers that are confident see everything as an opportunity.
They use positive action to combat doubt and fear.
Managers put their ideas into action rather than overthinking things.
Confident leaders will let their personality and attitude shine through while having
a beneficial impact.
Managers are critical to the success of a corporation since they are in charge of
ensuring that operations function smoothly.
The top managers among us inspire and drive others with these leadership
They form successful teams that function in unison and cultivate influential
relationships with a variety of people.
A manager understands how to enable others to reach their full potential while
also confronting bad performance and difficult people with confidence.
For managers who wish to succeed in the workplace, leadership abilities are
among the most critical.
Managers that have a strong sense of leadership must lead by example,
motivate, and plan successfully
Strategy refers to the organization’s approach to resolving a given problem or
attain a certain task. The organizations frequently adjust their respective
approaches such that their a continuous development and growth of the
company. Therefore, the organization can sustain itself to the variation in the
environmental conditions. In this context, the improvement of personal skills is
essential to the progressive operation of organizations. Employees who have
skills and talents can understand the problems more easily and arrive at
desirable solutions appropriately. The existence of an organization solely
depends on the employees. The objectives, mission, vision, strategies and goals
of an organization are made by a skilled employee. An organization needs to
provide training programs that continuously upgrade and update the employee to
Some areas that need development include;
Decision making and evaluation
It refers to scheduling different tasks depending upon their priority and division of
tasks in the time allocated such that the tasks can be completed in time without
affecting the normal routine. Time management essential in organization
performance as most organization’s operation is measured in terms of time. Time
is used as a regulatory or control factor and plays a key role in measuring
Refers to the process of allocating tasks to different persons in an organization.
Though the tasks may be delegated, the responsibility remains in control of the
manager. If a given task is not completed within the scheduled duration, the
employees assigned to perform the task will be responsible. Delegation is
important in an organization since people have different talents and skills.
Recognizing and delegating different tasks in accordance with employee skills
enhances performance efficiency. This form the basis for the existence of
departments in an organization.
Influencing factors include; macro and micro environmental factors, availability of
resources, availability of alternatives and research findings.
Refers to the improvement of a person’s ability to solving problems and
controlling reactions to different circumstances. Assist in the performance of
employees in the organization.
Fields of personal development include;
It is the transfer of information between different individuals in an effective
manner such that there is no barrier or any misinterpretation and
misunderstanding of information. Improvement of communication skills
entails; understanding the culture and personality of other individuals,
listening to other people or parties and assimilation of facts.
Refers to the process of understanding the available information. That is,
different facts should be interpreted and understood the way they are
without making assumptions. Different essential points should be noted in
any fact. Improvement of analytical skills entails; comprehending the data
presented, recognizing critical factors, and enhancing research models to
assist in data analyzing.
To improve time management, one should; understand the critical nature
of tasks, understand resource availability, know the completion time and
Thus, updating of employee skills play a key role in enhancing practices of
management at different workplaces.
Shanafelt, T., Trockel, M., Ripp, J., Murphy, M. L., Sandborg, C., & Bohman, B.
(2019). Building a program on well-being: key design considerations to meet the
unique needs of each organization. Academic Medicine, 94(2), 156-161.
Islami, X., Mulolli, E., & Mustafa, N. (2018). Using Management by Objectives as
a performance appraisal tool for employee satisfaction. Future Business
Journal, 4(1), 94-108.
A personal development plan (or PDP) isn’t just something your boss demands
you do before your annual review; it’s also that solid rock that keeps your hopes
and goals in sight. I will consider the following steps in preparing my development
I will set my goals to meet
Everything appears to be in disarray, and there are numerous frustrations. Not
only is figuring out what I want the initial step in planning, but it’s also the most
difficult. Once I’ve worked out what you want to achieve, that dream serves as an
emotional anchor, bringing stability and order to a chaotic situation.
I will prioritize those goals
Remember that you can’t do everything at once and trying to will lead to failure.
Set myself deadlines
Knowing when I want to reach a goal is critical, and visualizing my future is a
powerful motivator and great inspiration.
Recognize threats and opportunities
There will be certain things, whether external or internal, that will hinder me from
reaching my goals or cause me to be delayed if I let them to.
Use my network support that is the is the available network around me. Some
people around may help me make my development successful.
Track my progress.
After I’ve made some progress, big or small, I’ll take some time to reflect on how
far I’ve come. Recognizing what has gone well has helped me maintain my
enthusiasm and commitment.
Identify current and lacking leadership skills
To begin, make a list of the skills you already possess. Skills are not the same as
traits: Skills can be learned (e.g. Excel, communication, delegating, etc.). Natural
abilities that last a lifetime are known as traits. Some o the skills to identify are;
Self-awareness, stress management, and problem-solving are examples of
Coaching and counseling, as well as various forms of supportive communication,
influencing and encouraging others, and managing conflict are all examples of
Empowering and delegating, forming effective teams and teamwork, and
managing change are examples of group abilities.
Presentation skills, policy development, staff management, budgeting, and
project management are all technical talents.
Rubens, A., Schoenfeld, G. A., Schaffer, B. S., & Leah, J. S. (2018). Selfawareness and leadership: Developing an individual strategic professional
development plan in an MBA leadership course. The International Journal of
Management Education, 16(1), 1-13.
At all levels of the company, from small units to the wider corporation,
employee development has a significant impact. Overall organizational
performance is thus based on individual personal growth and their ability
to meet the organization’s objectives.
We develop leadership and management skills to support organizational
objectives through the development of these skills, which includes
determining the leadership area in which we develop personal leadership
skills through learning, and the objective is to determine the leadership
area that belongs to interpersonal leadership development, such as
between employer and employee.
The third purpose is to build leadership through group and organizational
development, and another important goal is to establish community
leadership, which aids management in the organization’s future growth.
As a result, chances chosen by individuals for their personal development
plan contribute to the achievement of organizational goals.
– How objectives and the plan selected for personal development support
achievement of organizational vision and strategy:
Abraham Maslow in his theory of the hierarchy of needs an individual is
motivated to perform by self-actualization by nature or instinctively. When
all of their prerequisites are met, they are able to achieve their full
Improved work environment, better working habits, time and cost savings,
and more employee satisfaction and dedication are all development
elements that lead to a considerable decrease in or low turnover.
Employers have a responsibility to help their employees and give them the
essential resources so that they can reach their maximum potential.
Management is responsible for ensuring that employee requirements such
as psychological, physical, sense of belonging, safety, esteem, and others
are met. Because people strive for growth and development, there are
various ways and areas of an organization that can benefit.
In addition, an individual’s constant professional growth assists him or her
in recognizing the advantages of a planned approach, as well as
maintaining and upgrading their talents. Individuals should keep
themselves up to date and be able to gain new skills and overcome new
problems. A professional’s ability to obtain fresh expertise and information
is the most effective technique to gain a competitive advantage over their
colleagues and peers is again for the development of the organization.
Employees can use personal skill audits to discover their strengths and
requirements so that they can grow in a positive work environment.
Personal skill audits have proven to be extremely beneficial for employees
in terms of staying on track with their careers. It’s most useful for
ambitious people who want to start their own business or work in
management, which in turn helps the growth of the Organization.
Personal skill audits can be used, where the method of assessing and
recording an individual’s abilities and capabilities. The primary goal of skill
audits is to determine where an organization’s strengths and
competencies lie, as well as its flaws and areas for development.
The skills audit process aids in the identification and analysis of existing
deficiencies and helps them improve personally and thus help the
organization have better-equipped Employees.
These processes help in improving employees in the area of
Understanding the duties and responsibilities of leadership along with
Professional and personal growth.
This could help them get valuable skills such as Administrative skills,
Managerial and people management skills, Stress management abilities,
Time management skills, etc. The employee may be better equipped to
Effectively conducting meetings on behalf of the organization.
appropriate personal development activities to develop knowledge and
skills identified in the audit
The major goal of participating in personal development activities is to
raise awareness of personal skills, analyze where they came from, and plan
how to improve them.
On my task of conduct appropriate personal development activities to develop
knowledge and skills identified in the audit, I will highlight the following;
• Broaden a staff member’s job responsibilities to encompass a broader
range of tasks, risk-taking changes, and/or increased accountability
• Ascertain that various sorts of tasks and levels of responsibility are
required, rather than simply more work on the same task.
• Monitor and evaluate the progress of the employee.
• Assist the employee in assuming the responsibilities of his or her
supervisor, either as a replacement or as a substitute.
• Allow for the opportunity to see and participate in the supervisor’s day-to-
ATTENDANCE AT DEPARTMENT, DIVISION, STAFF, OR OTHER
SPECIALLY DESIGNATED MEETINGS AND INVOLVEMENT IN THEM
Choose the meeting(s) that will provide the knowledge, exposure, or
expansion that the staff member requires.
• Determine the expected outcome for the staff member and prepare the
staff member’s participation in the meeting ahead of time.
• Review the discussion with the staff member, focusing on the areas that
are connected to the expected outcomes (e.g. exposure to thinking at a
more global instead of local level).
COACHING AND FEEDBACK COUNSELING ON THE JOB
Answer questions, assess work, discuss progress, and provide general
direction to demonstrate expertise and knowledge.
• Work through real-world situations to exchange insights and problemsolving techniques.
• Follow up on the progress of the project and report back on the outcomes.
FORMAL PRESENTATION OPPORTUNITIES
• Assign a presentation that will allow the staff member to hone their
planning and organizing abilities, as well as their ability to communicate
• Prior to the presentation, review and critique the plan.
• Provide feedback on the presentation’s effectiveness.
EXPOSURE TO ANOTHER FUNCTION THAT HAS BEEN PLANNED
• Expose the employee to lateral job functions as part of a project or as an
observer With the help of the staff member, identify and plan the
• Examine and evaluate your exposure experience.
TRANSFER IN THE AFTERNOON
Transfer the employee to another job at the same level to enhance his or her
knowledge and experience while also developing an understanding of the
perspectives and interrelationships of various groups within the firm.
ASSIGNMENTS FOR VACATION OR REPLACEMENT
• Assign the staff member to the obligations of his or her supervisor when
he or she is on vacation or on extended travel.
Examine the assignment with the employee and provide feedback on his
or her performance.
• Choose a challenge that will necessitate enhanced analytical ability,
improved judgment, organizational expertise, and/or decision-making
• Assign a thorough investigation of the problem area.
• Examine and comment on the research.
PROJECTS OR ASSIGNMENTS FOR SPECIAL TEAM PROJECTS
To improve the staff member’s ability to collaborate with others, place
him or her in a group problem-solving environment.
• To improve the participant’s knowledge and awareness of the
organization, place the staff member in a group with representatives
from other parts of the organization.
• Examine and comment on the performance or participation of the staff
WORK WITH A SPECIALIST ONE-ON-ONE
• Arrange for the staff member to speak with or work with experts in relevant
• Arrange for the employee to speak with or collaborate with outside
• Review new ideas, viewpoints, and knowledge gained in the follow-up.
PROGRAMS FOR IN-HOUSE TRAINING
• Enroll the employee in a relevant in-house course or program offered by
Learning and Organization Development, DUHS Education Services, the
Professional Development Academy, or Continuing Education.
• Request that the staff member gives a report on what they learned.
• Make computer-based training available to the employee.
OUTSIDE FUNCTIONAL TRAINING
• Choose external professional development programs with care.
• Ensure that the programs (for example, leadership development,
functional widening, or technical education) fit the specific needs of the
organization and its employees.
• Consider courses at a community college or a university that can be used
to teach certain skills.
PROGRAMS FOR SELF-DEVELOPMENT
• Participants should be scheduled for interpersonal skills and motivating
• Only expect short-term effects.
Share your knowledge, experience, and opinions on certain topics with the staff
member to encourage him or her to attempt fresh ways to problem-solving.
FORMAL EVENING COURSES AND HOME STUDY COURSES
• Many community institutions, universities, and professional organizations
offer a variety of courses.
• Such classes necessitate a great deal of self-control and effort.
• Examine your progress.
ACTIVE INVOLVEMENT IN COMMUNITY AND CIVIC ACTIVITIES
Encourage the employee to get active in community organizations so that he or
she can acquire leadership abilities, planning and organizing skills, problemsolving skills, and a sense of community.
PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOPS
• Choose and analyze the workshops carefully.
• Only choose to participate if you want to.
• Choose seminars that will help him get fresh insights into his personal
style and how others see him in interpersonal connections.
ROLE-PLAYING OR MODELING:
• Demonstrate acceptable behavior in a given situation to the staff person
(e.g. evaluation discussions).
• Allow the employee to put the skills he or she has learned into practice.
STRUCTURED PLANNED BEHAVIOR CHANGE
• Identify the desired behaviors that need to be increased.
• Assist in the systematic reinforcement of positive behavior.
ADVICE FROM A TRAINED PROFESSIONAL IN PERSONAL COUNSELING
Arrange for professional therapy for a staff member who is having personal or
adjustment issues (starting with Personal Assistance Services).
Bauer, W. I. (2007). Research on professional development for experienced
music teachers. Journal of Music Teacher Education, 17(1), 12-21.
Sandwith, P. (1993). A hierarchy of management training requirements: The
competency domain model. Public Personnel Management, 22(1), 43-62.
Thurlings, M., & den Brok, P. (2017). Learning outcomes of teacher professional
development activities: a meta-study. Educational review, 69(5), 554-576.
In request to build up a dream, the following approaches can be used:
1. An overview should be lead throughout the organization so that various
personnel can share their thoughts and suggestions. To incorporate the
inputs from a straw vision, an intranet portal can be established. On the
one hand, the sifted input concerning the probable vision can be chosen
by management and handed on to the next for further refining, while on
the other hand, discussing and selecting the most fitting vision can be
done by the team. A dream improvement team can be formed with the
help of several levels of labor and management.
2. The organization can conduct a dream journey in which diverse members
of the management team can participate and provide their own
interpretation of the vision.
3. Promoting a bottom-up grassroots vision.
4. Conducting a massive gathering visioning meeting in which the part work
of various aspects of the fir’s vision is combined.
5. A dream improvement team can be formed with the help of several levels
of labor and management.
6. The organization should ensure that every level of employee is involved in
order to present the entire organization’s vision rather than just a few of
Given the realities of capability, time, and funding, include as many
individuals as possible in the initial formulation of the vision.
Don’t let current facts limit you during the creative process. Allow yourself
to experiment, challenge, and have fun!
Focus on the desired outcome of your endeavor first and foremost, not on
the steps necessary to reach it.
Declare your vision ideas in the present tense and positive words, as if
they are now true.
Expect stakeholders to want a rapid, symbolic “proof” that your vision is
more than just words on a page. Begin these indications with a celebration
that elicits genuine enthusiasm and respect.
The manner and procedure you employ to build and announce your vision
must reflect the vision’s spirit.
Put someone in charge of ensuring that your vision is alive, well, and
consistent throughout the organization. Always ask yourself, “How does
what we’re doing serve our vision?” Are we following our vision’s ideals
and guiding principles in our daily lives? Is our mission motivating our
Some people may feel threatened by the sentiments created by your
vision. Encourage open dialogue and experimentation. People will never
be able to overcome their worries unless they confront them head on.
Fears and skepticism do not always imply that people are opposed to
change. It’s a natural aspect of how individuals react to change.
Continue to be open, adaptable, and attentive to people’s input.
Encourage your vision to be fine-tuned and corrected.
People must find your vision’s words interesting and meaningful. People’s
interest and action will not be sustained by “nice” remarks. Words with a
lot of impact will. To see how powerful your statements are, put them to
You must not only talk the talk, but also walk the walk with complete
honesty. Ensure that your organization’s leaders speak and act in a way
that reflects the vision. People must experience the vision rather than just
The visioning process provides an opportunity to refocus the direction of
your organization. Be inventive! During the first development phase, do
something really unexpected. Take a chance when it comes to developing
the vision statement. Take the time it needed, given its importance. Make
use of tactics that deviate from the standard. Use creative tools such as
movies, music, images, symbols, guided imagery, and right-brain
Keep your consumers and other important stakeholders up to date on your
vision and how it’s changing.
Their vision is “To be the world’s most customer-centric company.”
Their vision is “To become the worldwide leader of all retailing.”
Their vision is “To bring inspiration and innovation to every athlete in the world.”
Their vision is to “Create better everyday lives for as many people as possible.”
The Facebook vision statement is “People use Facebook to stay connected
with friends and family, to discover what’s going on in the world, and to
share and express what matters to them.” Its focus is on the influence the
company has in the social media sector.
Grasseni, C. (2009). Developing skill, developing vision: practices of locality at
the foot of the Alps (Vol. 3). Berghahn Books.
The target group
The organizational development
When we talk of external stake holders in the business we refer to the customers,
the suppliers, other unions, mass media and even the local communities. the
factors that impact the communication of vision of external stakeholders include;
The target group
The target group by the business has a very big impact in the communication of
vision to the external stakeholder. For instance, based on the different external
such as customers suppliers, the local community or the creditors, and the
communication has to be formulated to suit the group of target for it t to be
The size of the business always has a very big effect on the communication to
the external stakeholders, thus, the more large the business is, the message may
have to be differentiated in order to get to every category of stakeholders. Again,
if the business is big in size, there is always increase in the keenness of interest
from the stakeholders and the zeal to learn more increases thus the frequency of
communication requires to rise to maintain them well informed.
Factors to gain commitment of internal stakeholders.
1. Visibility of vision and mission statement, this acts as the brand and would
clearly communicate and build the company.
2. Let the leadership and all employees should be on same page to ensure a
multiplication of mindsets, as opposed to diminishing, leadership style
3. Engagement activities which will make the stakeholders to establish a
strong relationship between the stakeholders, this can be achieved by
holding meetings regularly.
4. Reward and recognition should be properly listed to capture the attention
of the stakeholders and make them strive to achieve.
5. Variety of other activities and internal promotion to ensure better and
equal chances amongst the stakeholders.
6. Create some memories through one-to-one interaction to promote
interaction before communications amongst the stakeholders and enable
them spoke in unison.
7. Let everyone preach and practice the same thing across organization to
promote unity and strategically towards achieving the same goals.
Personal Development for Leadership
and Strategic Management
Kindly note that:
– All points are to be discussed in 3000 to 4000 words.
– Plagiarism (copy and paste from the internet or other resources)
should not exceed 20%.
– All assignments are to be in Word form, and Font Size is 12.
No PDFs will be accepted.
You have been a senior manager for a number of years and have decided that your
next career move should be to or take responsibility for an aspect of strategic
management in an organisation. Some interesting posts have been advertised
recently and you have registered with a recruitment agency Harris Hall, which
specialises in senior positions.
Harris Hall has sent you a guidance pack titled ‘Preparation for Application and
Interviews’, which includes some tasks for you to complete. This will provide the
foundations for the applications you will make. You are required to produce a file of
information. In section 1 you must:
analyse the knowledge and skills in leadership and strategic management
which are required to support the creation and achievement of organisational
vision and strategy
assess the contribution that factors other than skills and knowledge in
leadership and strategic management make to the achievement of
organisational vision and strategy
review theories of leadership and management and assess the implications
for your personal development.
To gain a merit grade you should also add a further section which:
• provides a justified ranking of the leadership and management knowledge and
skills required to successfully create and achieve organisational strategy.
© ATHE LTD 2016
19122016 Version 1.0
To gain a distinction grade you must produce an additional section which:
• evaluates the leadership and management knowledge and skills required for
the successful achievement of organisational operations versus the creation
and achievement of organisational strategy.
LO1 AC 1.1, 1.2, 3.1,
The second part of the file enables you to manage the development of your own
personal knowledge and skills in leadership and strategic management. This will
support achievement of personal and organisational vision and strategy. This audit
must be done in the context of an organisation where you are employed, where you
work in a voluntary capacity, where you wish to gain employment or where you are
studying. You must:
carry out an audit of your own personal leadership and management
knowledge and skills. The knowledge and skills identified must facilitate the
creation and achievement of organisational vision.
set objectives to meet your personal development needs in the context of
strategic organisational needs
prepare a personal development plan to develop own leadership and
management skills to support the creation of organisational vision and
To gain a merit grade:
• justify how objectives and the plan selected for personal development support
achievement of organisational vision and strategy.
To gain a distinction grade you must:
• carry out appropriate personal development activities to develop knowledge
and skills identified in the audit,
LO3 AC 3.2, 3.3, 3.4
© ATHE LTD 2016
19122016 Version 1.0
Harris Hall has sent you an email about an interesting post which is advertised in
Management Today and you have decided to apply. As part of the application the
organisation wants you to send a CV and a paper on ‘Developing and
Communicating Organisational Vision’. The SHR Department in the organisation will
use this information in the shortlisting of applicants, who will then be invited to
Prepare a paper which:
analyses the factors which impact on the creation of organisational vision
assesses the different approaches to developing vision
evaluates the key factors which impact on the communication of vision to
To gain a merit grade you must write additional section in the paper which:
• evaluates the key factors needed to gain the commitment of internal
stakeholders when communicating vision
LO 2 AC 2.1, 2.2, 2.3
Congratulations you have been shortlisted for the post and been invited to interview.
You are required to prepare a presentation which:
assesses the benefits of review and explains when this tool can be used in
the achievement of personal and organisational strategy.
You are required to produce a paper which:
evaluates the sources of information needed to review progress with
achieving personal development plans.
LO 4 4.1, 4.2
© ATHE LTD 2016
19122016 Version 1.0
In the guidance pack Preparation for Application and Interviews’, Harris Hall have
asked you to review progress to date with your personal development plan. You
understand the importance of review in supporting individual and organisational
Produce a report which reviews your progress against the outcomes stated in
your personal development plan.
© ATHE LTD 2016
19122016 Version 1.0
Guidelines for assessors
The assignments submitted by learners must achieve the learning outcomes and meet the standards specified by the assessment criteria for
the unit. To achieve a merit or distinction grade, the learners must demonstrate that they have achieved all the criteria set for these grades.
Where work for the pass standard is marginal, assessors can take account of any extension work completed by the learners. The suggested
evidence listed below is how learners can demonstrate that they have met the required standards.
LOs and AC
AC 1.1, 1.2,
© ATHE LTD 2016
19122016 Version 1.0
The learner must produce a clear and
detailed analysis of the knowledge and
skills in leadership and strategic
management which are needed to
support the creation and achievement
of organisational vision and strategy.
The assessment of other factors that
support achievement of organisational
vision and strategy should consider
each factor in turn and lead to
judgements. The learner must produce
a detailed review of a range of
leadership and management theories
linking them to their own personal
development and making judgements
on the relevance.
The learner must
determine the ranking
approach that will be
used. This must be
applied to the knowledge
and skills required to
successfully create and
strategy. The judgements
made must be explained
The learner should produce
a balanced evaluation of the
leadership and management
knowledge and skills
required for the successful
versus the creation and
organisational strategy. The
learner should consider
arguments for and against
and judge the evidence from
the different perspectives.
This should lead to valid
LO3 3.2, 3.3, 3.4
LO2 2.1, 2.2, 2.3
© ATHE LTD 2016
19122016 Version 1.0
The audit of learner’s own personal
leadership and management
knowledge and skills should be
objective and factual. It is not sufficient
to base this purely on personal
reflection. The audit needs to be
related to the analysis produced for AC
1.1. The objectives set must be
presented clearly, directly related to the
personal audit and organisational
strategic needs. The objectives should
The personal development plan should
be in a clear format with stated specific
objectives, timescales and monitoring
points. The plan must be detailed and
might include a range of activities such
as formal learning or training, as well
as informal learning.
The different factors impacting on the
creation of vision should be examined
in detail. The assessment of the
different approaches should be clearly
presented and lead to judgements. In
the analysis and assessment reference
to actual examples from organisations
would assist the learner in supporting
the points which are made. The
evaluation of key factors impacting on
the communication of the vision to
The learner must give a
explanation of the
reasons why the plan and
the stated objectives
support achievement of
organisational vision and
There should be evidence of
the personal development
activities undertaken. This
may take the form of a log
and include witness
statements, agendas of
meetings, programmes of
training events etc. The
evidence must link to the
knowledge and skills
identified in the audit.
The evaluation of the key
factors needed to gain
the commitment of
when communicating the
vision must consider the
points from different
perspectives. The learner
should provide reasoned
LO4 AC 4.1, 4.2
external stakeholders should clarify
who the external stakeholders might be
and how the message might be
differentiated. The evaluation should
consider the strengths and weaknesses
of different approaches and lead to
The presentation and paper must be
appropriate for the selected audience
and the scenario provided. The
assessment should be objective and
lead to judgements. This should be
accompanied by a full explanation of
when the tool of review can be used to
support achievement of personal and
organisational strategy. The learner
may wish to refer to examples of review
used in different organisations to
support individual and organisational
The evaluation of the sources of
information needed to review progress
when achieving personal development
plans must explain why they are
relevant and what benefits they bring.
This should lead to valid conclusions
© ATHE LTD 2016
19122016 Version 1.0
The report should accurately
identify and explain the
progress made in achieving
the objectives set in the
personal development plan.
The review must be honest,
factual and based on the
activities which have been
completed, identifying where
objectives have been met
and where any shortfalls
© ATHE LTD 2016
19122016 Version 1.0
Purchase answer to see full