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GIS Certificate: Second course
GIS 581:
GeoSpatial Analysis & Modeling
Professor, Dr. Sergei Andronikov
o Phone: 571-234-7259
o Monday, Tuesday &
Saturday in VA
o Wed, Thursday in DC
o E-mail:
[email protected]
M-Th: 3:00 – 5:00 P.M
GIS Resources
➢ International Journal of Geographical Information
➢ Geospatial Solutions;
➢ GEOWorld
➢ ESRI Press: ArcUser & ArcNews
❖ Kang-Tsung Chang “Introduction to Geographic Information
Systems”, 9th edition
❖ Michael D. Kennedy “Introducing Geographic Information
Systems with ArcGIS. A Workbook Approach to Learning
GIS”; John Wiles & Sons, 2014
❖ Michael Law, Amy Collins “Getting to Know ArcGIS”, 2018;
“Getting to Know ArcGIS PRO”, ESRI, 2018
❖ Andy Mitchell “The ESRI Guide to GIS Analysis”, ESRI, 2014
Additional Textbook:
• D. Grimshaw: “Bringing Geographical Information Systems
into Business”. 2-d Edition, Oxford Press, 2000
Course Format
WEEKS: 1, 3, 5, 7
Saturdays, GIS classroom
in VA
2:00PM – 6:00PM
Class participation, DQs
4 Lab Exercises,
Midterm Test
Final Project
• GOAL: to design and develop SBI/GIS Project.
• Oral Presentation. Worth – 300 points
• Correct use of SBI/GIS techniques and database
design (0 – 50)
• Quality of Geospatial analysis; describing what you did
in the project (0 – 60)
• Creativity in the Business problem solving (0 – 50)
• Quality of final products: maps, charts, figures, tables,
metadata (0 – 40)
• Final Presentation (0 – 100)

GIS Resources
➢ ArcGIS Desktop

Things to Keep in Mind…
• Use this course as an opportunity to
incorporate your work into future
conference presentation, scientific
article, job application, portfolio piece
• Use me as a resource for data needs,
procedures, analysis steps you may
need to do, presentations, publications
• Work independently and stay up to
date with exercises and assignments
• Explore the literature to find new ways
GIS is being used in your study field
More to consider……
• If you are sincerely interested in this field of GIS and
learning some analysis skills, you will do well in this
• Keep up with exercises and work at an even pace
throughout semester
• We will do enough advanced things in this class for
you to confidently apply for a job that requires “GIS
working experience”
• Start a term project early !!!
• Ask questions.
GIS 581:
GeoSpatial Analysis & Modeling
GeoSpatial Analysis & Modeling:
The Beginning
Professor, Dr. Sergei Andronikov
Lecture Outline: Spatial Awareness

How it is all started?
Where to begin?
Graphic & Numerical Environment
Special about Spatial
Spatial Elements
Spatial Measurement Levels
Spatial Location
Spatial Patterns
Spatial Dependency
How it is all started….
• A simple plan to manage natural resources will
require enormous amounts of data gathering,
compilation, evaluation, analysis and modeling.
• Thus, you have to develop
A computerized system for the management and
analysis of Spatial information: a GIS
• Canadian Department of Forestry and Rural
development in the 1960s
Capitalize on past experience!
Geospatial Applications
“The application of GIS is limited only by
the imagination of those who use it”
Jack Dangermond,
ESRI President
GIS or not GIS…..
What in the world is a “GIS”?
— Question from the Internet’s list of FAQ.
GISs are simultaneously the telescope, the microscope,
the computer, and the Xerox machine of regional
analysis and synthesis of spatial data. (Ron Abler)
• GIS Analysis is built upon knowledge from Geography,
Cartography, Computer science, IS and mathematics.
• Geographic Information Science is a new interdisciplinary field built out of the use and theory of GIS
Where to Begin….
• GIS software is not like the Google Maps
• GIS assumes you are familiar with the vocabulary of
• representing spherical surface onto a flat piece of
• generalization and map scale;
• that a map is a MODEL of reality. Limitations;
• identification problems;
• classification problems.
Nature of Spatial Data
• In GIS we travel the environments that are GRAPHIC
and NUMERICAL representation of the real world.
• The nature of the data often dictates not only HOW we
will represent the earth inside a GIS database, but
HOW EFFECTIVELY we will analyze and interpret the
results of the analysis
• The points, lines, and areas are all different.
• We must consider : temporal scale; physical size of
objects stored in GIS DB; the measurement level.
• You have to think SPATIALLY.
• The Cartesian coordinate system
A Node
90N for the Earth
• The Cartographic System
69 miles)
of Longitude)
– Lines of Latitude (running
– Lines of Longitude (running north-south)
(Line of Latitude)
Prime Meridian
Type of Projections
• Projections
GIS Projects

Step 1: Define Your Objectives
Step 2: Acquire the Required Data
Step 3: Preprocess Data
Step 4: Data Management
Step 5: GIS Analysis
Step 6: Generate Output
1. Define Objectives
• Identify who your user is
• Identify their needs
• Defines goals and objectives based on
user needs
2. Spatial & Non-spatial Data
• Acquire Attribute Data
– In House
– From Vendors
• Acquire Spatial/Map Data
– In House
• Digitize Maps
• Create Maps using GPS
– From Vendors
– Census data (e.g., Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding
and Referencing or TIGER Files)
GIS Data: Attributes + Spatial Data
• Attribute Data
– Stored in dBase Tables (e.g., *.DBF )
• Spatial (Map) Data
– Stored in Layer or Shape files (.SHP or .LYR)
• Areas
• Lines
• Points
• Raster/Image
Types of GIS Data
Maps as Numbers
• GIS requires that both data and maps be represented

as numbers.
Converting MAPS into NUMBERS requires that we
choose a STANDARD way to encode locations on the
A coordinate system is a STANDARTIZED method for
assigning codes to locations so that locations can be
found using the codes alone.
Standardized coordinate systems use absolute locations.
In a coordinate system, the x-direction value is the
easting and the y-direction value is the northing. Most
systems make both values positive.
Coordinate Systems
• FIVE Coordinate systems in the US
• Based on projections and historical land subdivision
• 1. Geographic Coordinates
• 2. UTM – Universal Transverse Mercator
• The basic unit is the meter. Adopted for much R.S.
work, topographic map, natural resource database
• The Military Grid System.
• UPS – Universal Polar Stereographic Grid
• For Polar regions.
Geographic Coordinates as Data
UTM Coordinate Systems
UTM zones in the US
Military Grid System
Coordinate Systems
• 3. SPCS – State Plane Coordinate System.
• Unique set of coordinates for each state. Uses Mercator or
Lambert’s conformal conic projection tied to a national geodetic
• Originally – to provide a permanent record of land survey
monument locations. Measured in feet. (State name, Zone
name, easting and northing values).
• At 4 times accurate than UTM. Lack of coordination between
state borders.

4. PLSS – Public Land Survey System.
• As a tool for recording ownership of land. 178535
GIS 581:
GeoSpatial Analysis & Modeling
GeoSpatial Data & GDB
Professor, Dr. Sergei Andronikov
• The PROCESS inputting spatial data into a
GIS database by assigning Geographical
coordinates for each point, line, and area
• Obtaining coregistration between the input
maps, and attribute information.
Getting Spatial Data
1. The Digitizing Process
Getting Spatial Data
2. Scanning
Getting Spatial Data
3. Field Data
Digital Remote Sensing
• Digital R.S. data are an increasing input to GIS
• The sensor divides/quantizes the earth into bands or
as individual rectangular grids called pixels (picture
• For GIS user:
• 1. Objects that are smaller than the pixels can not be
• 2. The raw data HAVE TO BE analyzed:
• a. Image Enhancement
• b. Image Classification. Supervised & Unsupervised.
3. Preprocess Data
• Import Data
– For example, TIGER line files may need to be
converted into TIGER Boundary Files
– Data from a spreadsheet needs to be imported
into ArcGIS table format
• Correct Errors
• Build Custom Areas/Features. Edit in ArcGIS
• Geocode Data
4. Data Management
• Manage the Data
– Work with table elements
– Consider the data in light of the
organizational data schema. Build GDB:
– Create Metadata
– Consult with other users
5. GIS Analysis

Spatial Relationship
Spatial Join
Spatial Overlay
Spatial Buffering
Networking analysis
Raster analysis
Geostatistical analysis
3-D Analysis, etc.
6. GIS Output

Compile a Final Outcome
Print paper maps
Export map images to other applications
Export map or table data to other data
management applications
• Build interactive Web maps
GIS Software Vendors
• Environmental Systems Research
Institute (ArcGIS)
• InterGraph Corporation (GeoMedia)
• MapInfo Corporation (MapInfo)
• IDRISI (Idrisi Selva)
Conceptual Models
• “Is the Spatial World a jig-saw puzzle of polygons, or a club-sandwich of
data layers ?” (Coucleis).
• 1. The space is occupied by ENTITIES described by their attributes.
Position could be mapped using a geometric coordinate system.
• A. To define the entity. B. To list attributes, to define boundaries & location.
• 2. Variation of the attributes varies over the space as some continuous
mathematical function or FIELD
• The simplest conceptual model represents geographical space in terms of
continuous Cartesian coordinates in 2 or 3 (4) dimensions. The attributes
vary smoothly.
• The choice of conceptual model determines how information
can be later derived.
Different disciplines: municipal vs. urban landscapes
Spatial Data
• In life spatial information are represented by lines or
dotted shading. In GIS it is formalized into the vector and
raster methods.
Constant Battle (Raster vs. Vector)
• A WIDE range of methods from simple data retrieval and display to the
creation of complex models for the analysis of different scenarios.
• These analysis capabilities will be usually organized in MODULAR
• Thus, each kind of analysis can be performed separately or combined with
others to build DATA ANALYSIS MODEL.
• To answer the QUERY you need to set up a formal set of data retrieval and
analysis operation to recall the data, to compute new information, and to
display the result.
• The kind of analysis technique that can be used on spatial data
depend greatly on the DATA MODEL & the REPRESENTATION that
have been used.
• Different data models and different kinds of representation can require
DIFFERENT approaches to formulate spatial queries.
• THE FUNDAMENTAL is whether the basic data model refers to ENTITIES
Areas = lines = points = coordinates
RASTER GIS: Generic structure for a grid
Grid extent
Generic structure for a grid.
Rasters vs. vectors
Vector-based line
Raster-based line
Flat File
4753456 623412
4753436 623424
4753462 623478
4753432 623482
4753405 623429
4753401 623508
4753462 623555
4753398 623634
Flat File
How to use spatial data to get information
• Spatial analysis is MORE than asking questions !
• IN THE CASE OF ENTITIES data analysis concerns
• the attributes, location and connectivity of the entities, and
measures of the way they are distributed in space
concerns the spatial properties of data
• The matter is more complicated by the fact that continuous
fields are usually discretized to a regular grid. And the grid
can be treated as an individual entity
Database Management
DBMS – computer programs for organizing and managing the
They use any of, or a combination of database structures.
The aim of DBMS – to make data QUICKLY available to many
users. DBMS:
1. Allow storage and retrieval of data and data selection;
2. Standardize access to data;
3. Provide interface between database and application program;
4.Allow several users to access the data simultaneously;
5. Protect the database from illegal changes.
Most DBMS allow access to data through a high-level programming language
and SQL.
GDB: Geodatabase format
• GDB – a repository of your spatial data inside a Relational
• Contains all of your raster, vector data, tables, objects
• GDB supports an Object-Oriented Vector data.
• Entities are represented as OBJECTS with PROPERTIES,
• Object Types include Simple Objects, Geographic features
(objects with locations), networks and topology (with spatial
relationship with other features), annotation features, other.
• GDB Model lets you define relationship between objects,
together with rules for maintaining their referential integrity.
• The simplest GDB contains a number of independent feature
layers (each contains points, lines, areas, annotation)
GDB: Geodatabase format – 2
• GDB stores a feature data itself. User has 2 copies
• Advantage – setting up default values for attributes
• GDB stores topology, geometric networks,
behavior and validation rules
• Feature Datasets contain related feature classes
with the same spatial reference
• Domains are maintained in ArcCatalog as a property
of GDB rather than of a single feature class
• GDB Annotation is another type of feature class (like
point, line) except it stores labels
Vector Data in GDB
• Vectors are well-suited for discrete features. Vector Contents:
• OBJECT CLASS. A DB table with which you can associate
behavior. “Owners” of “Land Parcels”
• FEATURE CLASS. A collection of features. Points, lines,
polygons, annotation. Streams, counties, census tracts.
• SUBTYPES. A Set of classes for the members of a feature class.
• Pipe Feature Class – subtypes: PVC, Iron, Concrete
• FEATURE DATASET A collection of feature classes with the
same spatial reference. Analogous to ArcInfo coverages. Vital for
facilities networks, roads, environmental layers, census geogr.
• RELATIONSHIPS. Association between two objects.
Vector Data in GBD – 2
• GEOMETRIC NETWORKS. A user-defined collection of feature
classes that form part of a connected network of edges,
junctions, and turns. Water network: valves and meters =
junctions, mains and service lines= edges.
• The basic methodology for creating a GN is to determine which
feature classes will participate and what role each will play.
• OPTIONALLY – a series of Network weights can be specified.
• TWO methods:
– A NEW , empty GN
– A GN from existing simple features
Vector Data in GBD – 3
• PLANAR TOPOLOGIES. A user-defined collection of
feature classes that share geometry. Feature classes as
soil types, vegetation, terrain, water can share boundaries.
Update all.
• DOMAINS. Define the valid values for attributes as a range
or a set of value. TYPES:
– Range domain (GPA: from 0 to 4.0)
– Coded domain – allows certain values taken from a list
(PipeDiam: 1, 3, 6, 12).
• VALIDATION RULES. One or more constraints upon the
attribute values, topology or placement of features to
enforce the behavioral integrity of features. How features
are interconnected in networks. 6-inch & 4-inch pipes.
Raster in GDB

• Why GDB?
Enterprise OR Personal GDB
Large Data holdings: edited, utilized, built
Choice of creating a Mosaic or a Catalog
Fast raster dataset display at any scale
Enhanced raster catalog functionality
Raster Data compression
Taking advantage of the Relational DBMS:
security, multi-user access, recoverability, etc.
Raster Data Structure
• A raster database is built as a number of Cartesian overlays
• 1. In SIMPLE RASTER STRUCTURE where each cell on each
overlay is assumed to be an independent unit in the data base, each
cell is identified by a coordinate pair and a set of attribute values for
each overlay.
• 2. Each overlay represented in a DB as a 2D matrix of points carrying
the value of a single attribute. Still requires much storage space.
• 3. The hierarchical structure: many-to-one between attribute values
and the set of points in the mapping unit. Each mapping unit is
referenced directly. It is clumsy for continuous data.
• 4.Each overlay is stored as a separate file with a general header, and
this is followed by a list of values which are ordered according to the
sequence of rows and columns. The best one.
Spatial Data
• Qualitative and Quantitative data
• Attributes of entities may be expressed by
Boolean, nominal, ordinal, integer or real data
types (include decimals)
• Differential continuous surfaces require real
data types and integers sometimes used as
an approximation.
Data modeling & Spatial Analysis
• 1. If the location and form of the entity is unchanging, but the
attributes can change to reflect differences then the
…………..representation of the entity model is appropriate
• 2. If the attributes are fixed, but the entity could change form or
shape but NOT position then – a ……………. model of a
continuous field. Drying up lake
• 3. If the attributes can vary, and the entity can change position
but not the form, or its parts are linked together, the behavior
can be described by an object-oriented model: info from one
level to another
• 4. If no clear entities can be discerned then treat it as a
discretized, continuous field.
Data modeling & Spatial Analysis
• CADASTRE. The main aim is to provide a record of the division and
ownership of land.Important: location, area, extent of land, and its
attributes. ………………………………… model works well
• LAND COVER DATABASE. A. The classes are crisp and mutually
exclusive, there is a direct relation between the class and its location. Then
-…………………………… model, polygon primitives and choropleth map.
• B. But if we use and interpolation techniques. Then it is better
described by the ……………………………………………… model
• Disciplines concerned with the inventory and recording of
static aspects of the landscapes use the entity approach.
• Those dealing with the studies of pattern and dynamic process
use the continuous differentiable fields.
Factors to consider
• Is the situation/phenomena simple or complex?
• Are the kinds of entities detailed or generalized?
• Do the database entities represent discrete physical
things or continuous field?
• Are the attributes obtained by complete enumeration or
by sampling?
• Will the database be used for descriptive,
administrative or analytical purposes?
• Is the process static or dynamic ?
in Action
GIS in

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