you in your development of the code of ethics, think through (and answer) the following
questions before you begin:
1. Which ethical principles are most relevant for you in this situation
(deontology, utilitarianism, fairness)? Why? What are the
individual-level and community-level effects of unethical behavior
(however you define it)?
2. Define a set of ethically-questionable behaviors. Define a set of
potential consequences for unethical behavior.
3. What are other students’ views on these behaviors? Their views on
Once you’ve thought through these questions, develop your code of ethics. It should
○ A mission statement/motto.
■ Think: How should the school portray itself to the
University and the public?
○ Specific guidelines.
■ Think: What is covered? Which behaviors are to be
encouraged or discouraged?
■ Think: What are the consequences for failure to uphold
the code of ethics?
MOTTOS & CODES OF
A Challenge of Leadership
Q: How do we avoid moral relativism in
A: Established policies and procedures
UNOS Criteria for
Formula motivated by medical need, not social or economic
Three broad criteria of entitlement
◦ Efficacy- The likelihood that the transplant will be a success
◦ Need- The lack of alternatives such as dialysis
◦ Disadvantage- Patients who are difficult to match should be
given a handicap
The UNOS points system
◦ Efficacy: 2 points for each of the six possible antigen matches + a
bonus of up to 6 points if the logistics in getting kidney to
patient are favorable
An organ found to be a perfect match for a patient on the waiting list
must be allocated to that patient
◦ Need: 6 points for medical urgency
◦ Disadvantage: 1 point for each 10% of population against which
they have antibodies
Demobilization of US Soldiers at the end of the
European Front: How Should You Decide?
Ask those affected by a policy how they want the resource
Two step process:
Soldiers were surveyed to determine most important factors:
Length of time in the Army, age, amount of overseas service, and
number of dependents
“Exposure to combat” was discovered as an important additional
factor via write-in votes
They were then asked to compare the relative importance of these
factors using a method of paired comparisons. An example:
___ Men with dependents, or
___ Men who have served overseas.
A follow up survey was done to determine the “importance
weights” that should be assigned to the criteria.
Demobilization of US Soldiers at
the end of WWII: Criteria
Length of time in the Army
1point per month
Length of time overseas
1 point per month
5 points per campaign star or
12 points per child under 18, up
Demobilization of US Soldiers at
the end of WWII: Advantages
Considered “good or fairly good” by 82 percent of
troops who demobilized early, and 65 percent of
troops who did not.
System was simple, and the criteria well-documented,
highly desirable of any bureaucratically administered
Defensible against attempts to manipulate the system.
◦ Army was deluged with requests for special treatment
after the plan was announced, but used the argument that
they were merely following the stated preference of the
soldiers themselves, therefore modifying the system after
the fact would generate resentment from the troops.
Leadership is the ability to influence, motivate and enable a group of
individuals to contribute to the success of a common goal or shared
Steer behavior in a particular direction
◦ To effectively implement strategies
◦ To increase and sustain:
Develop conditions so that employees create value for the organization
and find that process rewarding and enjoyable
◦ “Leadership is the art of getting someone else to do something you want done
because [that someone] wants to do it”
– Dwight D. Eisenhower
Think about leadership as any behavior—which can come from anywhere
in the organization—that positively influences the group to achieve its
The Levers of Leadership
Constructing formal incentive structures
e.g., armies, police, institutions, contracts
Inspiring and making arguments, telling
stories, showing images
Creating norms, setting expectations and
being exemplars of desired behavior
How Can Organizations Encourage
and Promote Ethical Behavior?
Commitment comes from the top:
◦ Home Depot: We are a values-driven company
and our eight core values include the
following…Giving back…Doing the right
thing…Respect for all people.
◦ Enron (!): Respect, integrity, communication and
◦ Google: Don’t be evil.
Codes of conduct
Honor codes, integrity statements, etc.
UCR Integrity Statement
At the University of California, Riverside (UCR) honesty
and integrity are fundamental values that guide and inform
us as individuals and as a community. The academic culture
requires that each student take responsibility for learning
and for producing work that reflect their intellectual
potential, curiosity, and capability. Students must represent
themselves truthfully, claim only work that is their own,
acknowledge their use of others’ words, research results,
and ideas, using the methods accepted by the appropriate
academic disciplines and engage honestly in all academic
assignments. Misunderstanding of the appropriate
academic conduct will not be accepted as an excuse for
academic misconduct. If a student is in doubt about
appropriate academic conduct in a particular situation, he
or she should consult with the instructor in the course to
avoid the serious charge of academic misconduct.
Assignment: Develop UCR School
of Business Honor Code
Your job: Develop UCR School of Business honor
◦ Mission statement/Motto
◦ Specific guidelines (what is covered?)
Questions to consider:
Which ethical principles are most relevant for your
group in this situation (deontology, utilitarianism,
fairness)? What are the individual-level and communitylevel effects of unethical behavior (however you define
Define a set of ethically-questionable behaviors. Define a
set of potential consequences for unethical behavior.
Based on your assessment, what are students’ views on
these behaviors? Their views on punishment?
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